The article will be edited soon, but may serve as a source of others.
- Understanding the Impact of DEW
- Active Denial Technology
The article is not complete yet! It is just a collection of knowledge and information without interpretation!
2. DEW Patents: Laser, MicroWave
Patent: Directed energy weapon
"FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to directed energy weapons and, in particular, it concerns directed energy weapons based on fiber lasers.
It has been proposed to use high energy laser (HEL) radiation focused on a target as weapon, both in offensive and defensive roles."
"Fiber lasers, i.e., lasers in which the active gain occurs within an optical fiber, are compact and avoid use of dangerous chemicals. Although output powers of more than 1 kW are available, output from a single fiber laser using current technology does not provide sufficient output power for implementation of an optimal directed energy weapon.
Various attempts have been made to combine multiple fiber lasers in a directed energy weapon so as to provide a desired total power output. Examples include: US 7970040 and WO 2012/062399."
High-power microwave system employing a phase-locked array of inexpensive commercial magnetrons
"A high-power microwave generator employing a plurality of inexpensive commercial magnetron tubes cross-coupled by means of a secondary coupling path between each magnetron output pair, whereby a portion of the output energy from a first magnetron tube is injected into a second magnetron tube and a portion of the output energy from the second magnetron tube is similarly injected into the first magnetron tube. The resulting cross-injection of microwaveenergies brings the respective magnetron tube pair into a phase-lock sufficiently stable to permit coherent combination of their outputs for many high-power microwave applications, such as directed energy weapon systems. The magnetron phase-locking system requires no external components other than the secondary coupling paths of this invention."
3. DEW History and Perspective
DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS ON THE BATTLEFIELD: A NEW VISION FOR 2025
by John P. Geis II, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF April 2003 Occasional Paper No. 32 Center for Strategy and Technology Air War College Air University Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
Directed energy technologies are not new. Laser research began in earnest in the United States during the space race of the 1960s, and research in microwave physics can be traced back to the atomic energy program in the late 1930s. 1 What is new is the power and energy output levels being achieved by devices in our laboratories and in the field."
"Recent developments include megawatt-class (millions of watts) continuous wave lasers that have shot down aerospace vehicles, and a system of lasers at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories that combine to produce a very short laser pulse with a peak power output of five quadrillion (5,000,000,000,000,000) watts. As the output of directed energy sources continues to increase, so does the potential for desirable battlefield effects. Within the next twenty to thirty years, laser and microwave weapons will place surface, airborne, and space forces at increased risk at greater distances. Lethal ranges for these new weapons will increase to hundreds of kilometers. As a result, laser blinding will rapidly become the least of our directed energy force protection worries."
"Continuous Wave Lasers
Dr. Charles Townes of Columbia University pioneered Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (MASERs) in the mid 1950s. Over the next several years, he worked to extend his MASER concept to the optical regime to generate visible and near-visible radiation. Dr. Townes’ work laid the foundation for the creation of the first ruby crystal laser in 1960 by Dr. Theodore Maiman of the Hughes Research Laboratories."
"Following Townes’ recommendations, the Air Force took the lead in laser research during the 1960s under the auspices of the Air Force Special Weapons Center (AFSWC). In 1962, AFSWC obtained funding from the DOD’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) to begin investigating the vulnerability of military systems to laser radiation and to begin laser device development. The Air Force eventually transferred most of the basic research on lasers from AFSWC to the newly formed Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL). Over the next decade and a half, Air Force laser research efforts focused on the development of laser devices and optical components, including efforts to increase output power, efficiency, and beam quality. By 1966, AFWL researchers had successfully demonstrated a carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas dynamic laser (GDL) with an
output power between 500 and 700 watts. In 1968, a follow-on Experimental Laser Device produced an output beam of 77,000 watts, which reinforced the idea that laser technology could eventually be fielded on airborne systems. Hence, the quest for laser weapons charged forward."
"In 1969, as a result of the early successes in GDLs, the U.S. government made a major commitment to build a one-megawatt (1-MW, or 1,000,000 watts) device by the end of 1971. While the project encountered delays, the laser was eventually finished in 1972 with a demonstrated output power of 0.5 MW. Initially, beam control difficulties resulted in an inability to optimally concentrate the energy on a spot of small size. While these beam control problems were solved, some of the early high energy lasers encountered engineering challenges associated with power output damaging some internal components. In spite of these challenges, by 1975, several high power lasers had been successfully demonstrated. Pratt and Whitney had developed a GDL with an output
power of 500kW (500,000 watts) in 1972, and Northrop developed a laser with between 0.5-1.0 MW of power."
"Meanwhile, new experimental efforts to track moving targets had begun. A proof-of-concept demonstration called Project DELTA (Drone Experimental Laser Test & Assessment) integrated Air Force Laser 1, an experimental gas dynamic laser, with a pointing and focusing system. Project DELTA achieved a spectacular success on 14 Nov 1973 when the laser system tracked, engaged, and successfully disabled an aerial drone at the Starfire Optical Range at Kirtland AFB, NM. This achievement resulted in the transition of this technology to the Airborne Laser
Laboratory (ALL) onboard an extensively modified NKC-135."
"The ALL was built to prove the physics and lethality of lasers in an airborne environment. Equipped with a 400 kW CO 2 GDL, it would demonstrate the potential for directed energy weapons in airborne combat. In May 1983, the ALL acquired, tracked and disabled five Sidewinder air-
to-air missiles. That fall, the ALL intercepted three ground-launched Navy drones flying low-altitude profiles over the Pacific Ocean. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, attention gradually shifted to
other devices including hydrogen-fluoride/deuterium-fluoride-based (HF/DF) systems. In 1984, the HF/DF lasers produced a 1MW beam, but like early attempts with CO 2 lasers, the beam quality at high power levels was not optimal. 8 Development of these systems continued, and in 1988,
a new megawatt-class HF/DF laser was successfully tested at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico."
"A second set of lasers was also developed in the late 1970s. In 1977, researchers at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory discovered the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL). This new type of laser substituted a chemical pumping scheme for the more traditional method of optical pumping with flash lamps to excite the lasing species to the meta-stable energy levels required for lasing. This new method proved to be significantly more efficient than flash-lamp pumping and dramatically
increased laser efficiency. By 1988, AF scientists had achieved an output of 35,000 watts using a supersonic flow technique. The success of COIL laser technology led to its selection for integration into the Air Force’s Airborne Laser (ABL) Program platform, where multiple 100kW-class
COIL laser modules will be combined to create an airborne, megawatt-class chemical laser for theater ballistic missile defense. By 1999, COIL technology had advanced to the point that Boeing had proposed a 100-kW-class laser system for the V-22 Osprey. 9 Also in 1999, TRW, Inc., had completed testing of one of the Airborne Laser’s modules, a multi-hundred kilowatt laser that is the foundation for the multi-megawatt full power demonstration to take place in 2005."
"To destroy soft targets (human flesh, fabrics, plastics, etc...) approximately 1000 Joules per square centimeter are required. Extremely hard targets such as tanks might require 100,000 Joules per square centimeter. Thus, a 25kW laser with a two-second pulse length and a five-centimeter spot size could kill a person, break an aircraft canopy, or ignite fabrics and materials at distances where transmission is only forty percent effective. The current state-of-the-art high energy lasers described
above can maintain this forty percent effectiveness over distances of twenty to forty kilometers. The ABL’s multi-megawatt systems are advertised as being able to destroy missiles at distances of over 200 nautical miles (370 km). Based on the American Physical Society analysis above, at close ranges, the ABL’s laser would be capable of destroying hard targets."
In contrast to continuous wave laser devices that produce continuous beams of light, physicists have developed a class of laser systems that produce laser energy in short bursts. For the purposes of this
paper, pulsed lasers are defined as those devices that produce less than 0.1 second of laser dwell time before cessation of lasing to produce the next pulse. Some pulsed lasers now in operation produce very short pulses that are on the order of a few hundred quadrillionths of a second."
"Pulsed lasers can create a unique series of effects caused by the impact of the short-duration high-intensity pulses. The magnitude of these pulses can be impressive. For example, in 1995, a tabletop laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory had a pulsed output of 100 trillion watts. While each pulse was extremely short, each pulse had a peak power output that was twenty times greater than the entire instantaneous electrical generation capacity of the United States of America. The beamlets from this laser, only 400 quadrillionths of a second in duration, act as powerful battering rams when projected against a structure or material. These pulses drive an ultrahigh-pressure shock wave into the material that can cause material failure through fracturing at the atomic level. The magnitude of these shocks is extreme. Tests using smaller devices in 1966 and 1987 yielded point impulse shock pressures on the order of a few megabars (a few million times atmospheric pressure), which would be equivalent to over 20 million pounds per square inch. Pulsed lasers have also been shown to have considerable ablation properties, which may be helpful in producing structural failures."
"As the laser pulse impacts the material, it hits with sufficient force to strip away molecules and atoms at the point of impact. While each pulse may not remove a huge number of molecules, some short-pulsed lasers can deliver well over one million pulses per second, which can cause considerable ablation of material in a short time. Because of the extreme intensity of their beams, pulsed lasers can also produce a superheated region of gas, or plasma, at the point of impact. Since lasers can be used to create these plasmas at pre-designated points, these effects may have operational utility. In somevcases, these laser-induced plasmas may be extremely bright, and this phenomenon may be able to temporarily blind or dazzle optical sensors."
"The extreme temperatures within the plasma and its effects on the chemical composition of the air in and near the plasma may affect engines. While this author has been unable to find definitive information on the subject, it certainly seems plausible that the ingestion of plasma at several thousand degrees Fahrenheit could potentially disrupt engine function in aircraft, missiles, and unmanned vehicles. Thus, while pulsed lasers may not burn through materials as well as their continuous wave counterparts, they have a number of unique characteristics that may give them military utility in the future."
"High Power Microwaves
A variety of sources, including radio frequency oscillators; magnetrons; fast, high power electrical switches; and even nuclear weapon bursts generate microwave radiation. We encounter microwave energy in many varieties every day: radio stations in the FM and Citizen’s Bands, airport air traffic control radio detection and ranging (RADAR) equipment, and the ever-popular kitchen appliance that heats the average hot dog in about twenty seconds. The effects that microwave energy has on materials vary dramatically depending upon the characteristics of the materials as well as the power level, pulse length, pulse repetition frequency for pulsed systems, and the frequency of the microwave radiation. This is why an 800-watt (illegal) Citizen’s Band radio booster amplifier at 20 MHz is harmless, but watching one’s dinner cook from inside an 800-watt (typical) microwave oven would be fatal."
"While lasers generate tightly focused beams of monochromatic (single frequency) photon energy in the visible and infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, high power microwave (HPM) devices generate much less focused beams of energy in the radio frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum, which spans from around 1 megahertz to around 100 gigahertz."
"Additionally, the frequency content, or bandwidth, of microwave signals can vary significantly. Narrow band systems emit all their energy within a few tenths of one percent of a central frequency. Wideband and ultra-wideband (UWB) systems can have their energy spread across a spectrum that is as much as twenty-five percent or more of the center frequency. High-altitude nuclear-burst-
generated electromagnetic pulses (EMP) may spread across many decades of bandwidth within the microwave range. However, it should be noted that high-altitude nuclear EMP does not have significant energy in frequencies above a few tens of megahertz, whereas narrow band HPM
spectra are typically in the few gigahertz to tens of gigahertz range and UWB spectra may contain energy in the frequency range from hundreds of megahertz to a few gigahertz. Unlike lasers that operate in the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the atmosphere,
clouds, or moisture do not significantly affect the propagation of microwave frequencies; thus, microwave weapons can provide all-weather capability. The next three sections will examine pulsed microwave radiation from both nuclear and non-nuclear sources as well as continuous
wave microwave radiation. The effects that both pulsed and continuous wave microwave energy can generate will also be discussed."
An extremely powerful variant of pulsed electromagnetic energy that results from a nuclear weapon detonation is know as electromagnetic pulse, or EMP. The bandwidth of a nuclear EMP signal is extremely wide, ranging from tens of hertz up through tens of megahertz."
"Additionally, as one might expect, the peak electric field strength of a nuclear-generated EMP can be exceptionally high. 26 Serious study of the effects generated by EMP began in a series of nuclear tests conducted at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean in 1962. 27 Shortly after the Soviet Union breached a nuclear testing moratorium, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton nuclear bomb 400 kilometers above the Pacific Ocean approximately 1300 kilometers from the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. 28 The experiment was code-named STARFISH. During the experiment, several
unusual events happened in Hawaii. Radio stations were shut down, street lighting systems became inoperative due to burned out fuses, cars stopped working due to burned out alternators and generators, and some telephone systems failed. Not every phone, streetlight and car was affected, but
these effects were felt as far as 1000 miles from the detonation site."
"While the cause of the widespread disruption was not immediately apparent, over the next two years researchers discovered that the test and these events were somehow linked, and that a yet unknown property of the electromagnetic energy emanating from the blast had wide ranging and potentially useful military effects. As both the U.S. and the Soviet Union began to realize the implications of detonating nuclear weapons in space, they drafted the Treaty on Principals Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies."
"In this treaty, now with over ninety-five signatories, the deployment of nuclear weapons in space was banned. Still, in their search for asymmetric advantages against the United States, some nations may be willing to violate the Outer Space Treaty above. Senior members of the Russian government have openly admitted to exploring the implications of nuclear detonations in the upper atmosphere or outer space over the United States in the event of war."
"Writings by two senior Chinese Colonels at one of China’s military senior service schools talk plainly of “Unrestricted Warfare,” where, if China faced the U.S. in war, they would seek major asymmetric advantages and not confine the conflict to effects on military forces. The EMP effects created by a nuclear detonation over the center of the North American continent could be very serious. A multi-megaton weapon exploding over the central United States would spread a peak electrical field of twelve to twenty-five kilovolts per meter over the area within line of sight (from coast to coast) of the nuclear detonation with considerable impact. 34 To put this into perspective, electrical field strengths of three to eight kilovolts per meter cantwenty kilovolts per meter will cause some equipment to be damaged, requiring component repair or replacement before systems can operate again. Above twenty kilovolts per meter this kind of damage becomes probable. These effects would be experienced by ground and satellite based systems alike. 37 The potential effect of such a detonation has been likened to taking the entire nation and transporting it back in time to the
1890s. 38 The burst of electromagnetic radiation could cause motor vehicles, telecommunications, radio, television, computers, water and sewer systems, and electrical generators to all stop working. While such predictions may seem extreme, and while several government agencies have offered more optimistic predictions, these optimistic predictions have been openly discredited due to several methodological flaws in their testing and evaluation procedures."
"Even more disconcerting, steps taken by various agencies to protect themselves from interference by relatively innocuous devices suggest the actual threat may be quite severe. For example, ‘we make
passengers on aircraft, during takeoff and landing, turn off radios, games, and other electronic devices. Hospitals regularly place signs that electronic devices are not allowed. Many do not want you using your cellular telephones near their computer. Many repair shops require that wristbands attached to the ground be used when opening electronic equipment for repair.’ 40 In the end, while the exact effects of these pulsed microwaves may in some cases be classified, and in others unknowable, the precautions several industries take against very small emissions suggest the vulnerability to our national infrastructure may indeed be significant."
"Worse yet, if the U.S. were attacked, the system failures will likely compound each other. For example, if the electrical system repairmen cannot travel to the damage site because their vehicles are inoperative, and cannot get their vehicles repaired because the local repair shop has neither electrical power nor the phone service to order spare parts, then serious delays will result. The problem is further compounded with the electrical repairmen not even knowing a repair is needed because they are unable to communicate with their command center. Thus, the whole recovery process greatly bogs down and becomes slower still. If this problem is expanded to cover nearly an entire continent, then the recovery pace from such an event might best be described as glacial. cause temporary upset of commercial off-the-shelf equipment, requiring rebooting computer systems to bring them back on line. 35 At field strengths above eight kilovolts such upsets become probable. Field strengths between seven and"
Admittedly, the preceding discussion focuses heavily on the probable nationwide disruption resulting from a (hopefully unlikely) high-altitude nuclear burst EMP. However, the adverse effects caused on
electronic equipment by microwave radiation are not unique to nuclear EMP. Air Force laboratories have made substantial progress in developing microwave sources and antennas that are powered by much more mundane power systems than nuclear explosions. Currently available laboratory sources can produce one gigawatt of power for a few nanoseconds from a source weighing only forty-five pounds. A slightly larger 400-pound source can produce 20 gigawatts of power for the same
few nanoseconds. 42 By comparison, the total power production output of the Hoover Dam is only 2 gigawatts. 43 These microwave systems can affect electronics in much the same way as described in the EMP discussion above, albeit their effects are significantly more localized."
"Unfortunately, the technical expertise and vast resources of U.S. military laboratories are not necessarily required to develop effective microwave weapons. For example, according to some sources, relatively small devices can be built by individuals using parts available at commercial stores or through mail order, placed in a van, and be capable of effecting buildings across a street. 44 A small suitcase bomb, which destroys all computers within the radius of its “detonation,” has been built in Russia and reportedly has been sold to the Australian military. The price was around $100,000. 45 These devices can produce electrical field strengths of up to 100 kilovolts per meter with a tunable pulse rate to ensure maximum effect on the target. 46 If the claims made by the designers of such devices are even partially accurate, these systems are capable of disabling electronics over predetermined areas, and U.S. systems are currently vulnerable."
"Continuous Wave Microwaves
Most people are familiar with the most common effect of continuous wave microwaves. It heats their foods. This heating is due to the microwave energy exciting the water molecules within the food
causing its internal temperature to warm. From a physics standpoint, there is nothing to prevent microwaves being used on living tissue, and research on the biological effects of these waves has been conducted for the past seventy years."
"The initial research into the effects of microwaves on living tissue began in 1931 with experiments examining the capacity of radio waves to induce unusual rhythms into the heart. 48 By the mid 1940s, research expanded to examine possible relationships between microwaves and the unusual incidence of cataracts in the eyes of personnel who worked in the microwave industry. 49 By 1957, the scope of research expanded further as scientists probed the death of a young military member who died from an apparent overexposure to radar energy. 50 Research on effects of large doses of microwaves on various human organs continued through the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The exposure of Moscow-based U.S. Embassy personnel to low levels of microwave radiation in the 1970s fostered a new round of research. Scientists began examining the long-term effects of low-level microwave exposure. This research continued to expand, and as of today, there are at least 957 separate open-source research publications on the medical and biological effects of microwave
"Throughout this research, scientists have demonstrated a myriad of microwave effects among which are biological changes on the cellular level, changes in brain chemistry and function, changes in cardiovascular function, creation of lesions within the eye, temporary incapacitation, and even death. 52 Early research in microwaves also showed that low dosages over long periods could cause changes in the formation of cells in lung tissue and decreasing lung function; 53 changes in calcium ions affecting brain and cell function; 54 changes in blood chemistry; 55 changes in immune system function, some favorable and others adverse; 56 and increases in histamine production. 57 In addition, microwaves have been able to produce performance-degrading effects. For example, microwaves have been able to turn alpha waves into beta waves in the brains of some animals, and a recent Pentagon briefing indicated that effects such as using electromagnetic waves to put humans to sleep or heat them up have been explored. 58 This research seems to have been confirmed by the Marine Corps Electromagnetic Weapons Project in the early 1980s, which discovered that electromagnetic radiation could be used to cause mammals to release eighty percent of the natural opioids in their brains, placing animals in a stupor. 59 Substantial research has been conducted into the pain-inducing effects of heating the outermost epidermal layers, and the U.S. Marine Corps has conducted area denial demonstrations with this technology."
"Lethal effects are also possible. The Washington Post reported in 1987 that the Soviet Union had used radio wave weapons to kill goats at a range of one kilometer. 61 Research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was conducted on an electromagnetic gun what would “induce epileptic-like seizures.” 62 Another was a “thermal gun what would have the operational effect of heating the body to 105 to 107” degrees Fahrenheit. Such effects would bring on discomfort, fevers, or even
death. 63 The Russians may have even been able to use electromagnetic energy to create a “voice of God” effect. 64 If true, microwave energy may have uses in the information operations realm as well.
What is even more interesting are the power levels needed to create these potentially debilitating effects. Research by French physicist Jacques Thuery suggests that many of the uses mentioned above can be conducted with only a few milliwatts of energy per square centimeter on target. Even the most extreme uses involved energy of only around 550 milliwatts (slightly more than 1⁄2 watt) per square centimeter. 65 These energy levels are important when compared with the power generation
capabilities mentioned above. As a result, continuous-wave radio weapons (microwaves) may have significant military uses as we move intothe 21 st Century."
"III. Future Developments in Directed EnergyWeapons
The most effective way to cope with change is to help create it.
--L. W. Lynett
Yesterday is not ours to recover, but tomorrow is ours to win or lose.
--Lyndon B. Johnson
Futurists tell us that there are three basic ways to attempt to determine the future. One is to find a highly regarded expert and have him or her predict the future. The second is to use trend extrapolation. This is often used in science where one extrapolates from past developments to
predict the future. Moore’s Law of computer chip speed is an example."
"The last method is to use alternative futures. As stated earlier, the purpose of this paper is to take a realistic look at what impacts directed energy might have on the battlefields of the future. As a result, using an alternative futures methodology to predict scientific advancement is unnecessarily cumbersome. The futures would bound the problem, but the purpose here is not to look at the extreme
possibilities but to examine mainstream probabilities. Thus, this section will draw upon the expert testimony in part two, and will generally extrapolate the trends in directed energy developments to posit a state of technology likely to exist in the 2020-2030 timeframe. 67"
"Continuous Wave Lasers
Figure 1 details the development of laser power of operational in-the-field devices over the past 30 years. As the chart shows, initial growth in power output was rapid and exponential. The curve has flattened somewhat in recent years. Still, extrapolating these trends to the 2025 timeframe suggests the state of technology will allow deployment of lasers in the five to ten megawatt (MW) range. From these trends, this paper16... Directed Energy Weapons on the Battlefield posits that the technology will exist to field tactically significant lasers on small to medium sized aircraft, and on large ground vehicles by 2025."
"Larger devices, perhaps exceeding 10 MW, will likely be fielded as fixed ground stations. The effects of such devices would yield fighter aircraft laser systems capable of destroying hardened vehicles at short ranges, destroying surface-to-air missile sites at extended ranges, and destroying enemy fighter aircraft at ranges well beyond 100 kilometers. 68 The more powerful surface-based systems would have the capability to engage airborne targets at ranges beyond that of the Airborne Laser, and at approximately ten times greater range than the airborne systems mentioned above. These fixed systems will have two advantages in terms of scaling for greater power. They will not need to be miniaturized to fly, and they will be less limited on the amount of chemical or electrical power they to which they will have access."
"Laser Power Output over Time
Figure 1: Continuous Wave Laser Power Development Over Time
(2025 Extrapolated) 69Directed Energy Weapons on the Battlefield...17"
"Pulsed Laser Power Output over Time
Figure 2 Pulsed Laser Power Output Over Time (2020 Data Extrapolated) 70"
Like their continuous wave cousins, pulsed lasers have also increased exponentially in power over the past thirty years. Since no weaponization has yet occurred with this type of laser, it is difficult to
reasonably extrapolate trends for the future. This paper posits that derivatives from the current level of technology in the laboratory will make it to the field in the next twenty years. 71 Terawatt-class devices may be flying on fighter-like aircraft in the 2020-2030 timeframe. 72 Due to weight and size constraints, it seems likely that multi-Petawatt pulsed devices will be relegated to ground stations. Still, as the figure below indicates, extremely powerful devices are likely in this timeframe, providing significant military utility. For example, the Lawrence-Livermore 5-petawatt device was capable of generating temperatures at the impact point of several million degrees. Plasma creation, ablation through significant metal thickness, and some all weather capability become possible with lasers of this power. 7318... Directed Energy Weapons on the Battlefield"
"Continuous High Power Microwaves
Microwave effects differ from lasers because the effect on the target is only partially dependent on the power output of the microwave device. With microwaves, the specific frequency, bandwidth, and transmission device all have direct bearing on the effects sustained at the target. Nonetheless, power output capability for future microwave weapons will increase in much the same way as the laser devices already explored. With this power production and improved portability, microwaves will enable a very different set of effects-based operations on future battlefields.
As was discussed earlier, continuous wave microwaves can have a variety of potential effects ranging from an intense sensation of heat on a person’s skin, to causing incapacitation, to even causing death. The Air Force Research Laboratory has weaponized such a system for non-lethal effects, and it is being tested in conjunction with the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate. 74 This paper posits that the development of microwave weapons will continue in the next twenty to twenty-five years.
If the United States fails to lead this change, it may be forced to follow the lead of other developed nations. In the future, continuous wave microwave devices will likely find uses for area denial, force protection, or for non-lethal incapacitation of forces minimizing loss of life. 75 It is likely this technology will also be developed as a lethal weapon in the form of a “death beam” type device.
The wide beam-width of microwave transmission systems, which for some systems are measured in tens of degrees, will enable these effects to become widespread potentially covering large sections of the battlefield. 76 Thus, microwaves can be viewed as an area weapon. As a result, a different thought process must be used in choosing target sets and setting objectives. Used defensively, the nature of microwaves may reduce the importance of the element of surprise and/or the value of some stealth technologies."
In addition to being broadcast as a continuous beam, microwaves can be emitted in short pulses or bursts of short pulses. These pulsedDirected Energy Weapons on the Battlefield...19 microwave devices in future warfare will likely come in two basic forms: nuclear driven EMP weapons and conventionally driven pulsed devices.
Nuclear device driven EMP waves will likely change relatively little over the next twenty years. Limitations such as the nuclear test ban treaties will certainly hinder revolutionary advances in this area. 77 Still, as was shown in part two, peak electric fields of twelve to twenty-five kilovolts per meter will be possible within line of sight of any nuclear detonation. This includes space. Should an adversary launch such an attack, non-EMP hardened electronics would likely be destroyed in an area covering between one million and several million square miles, with severe damage possible out to 1000 miles. 78
Conventionally driven high power microwave sources will also have a significant effect on future battlefields. These weapons will have long reach, deep magazines, and will be of scalable size. While larger devices will be mounted on ground or air vehicles, some smaller devices will be hand held. 79
The larger vehicle mounted devices may be capable of interdicting over 100 targets per mission. Further, these weapons will likely have considerable reach. It is not unreasonable, “that a single high
power microwave weapon could destroy the entire air defense system,” and have a similar impact on the entire command and control network, possibly eliminating the ability to manage military assets. 80 While it is possible to defend against such attack, it is currently very difficult and quite expensive to harden systems and facilities against microwave attack.
Another area in which additional advancements may occur in pulsed microwave technologies is in the use of wideband pulses. Many microwave and radio transmitters today broadcast on a single carrier frequency, or in only a limited set of frequencies. This has led to programs hardening systems against pulses of a specific frequency. The enhancement of wideband microwave pulse technology will enable the destruction or disabling of those systems hardened against only parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, only those devices hardened against the entire electromagnetic spectrum will likely survive wideband microwave pulses.
The real question is what all these technological developments mean for future warfare. To try to answer this question as completely as possible, we will look at a future scenario in the 2020-2030 timeframe."
The Power of Light: An Airborne Laser for Missile Defense
By Tariq Malik November 17, 2004 Tech
The U.S. military is gearing up to test what might be the ultimate version of laser tag.
With a successful ground test in the bag, the Missile Defense Agency is pushing forward with plans for an Airborne Laser (ABL), a Boeing 747 freighter aircraft with a laser-tipped nose designed to destroy ballistic missiles as they rocket through the sky.
The defense system's primary weapon -- a megawatt-class chemical laser beam -- passed an initial ground-based test last week and a number subsystems have been integrated into the ABL aircraft, Missile Defense Agency (MDA) officials told SPACE.com. If all goes well, a integrated prototype of the Airborne Laser will soon be shooting down missiles in tests over the Pacific Ocean.
"This is a wonderful moment for the Missile Defense Agency and the proponents of a ballistic missile defense around the world," said Col. Ellen Pawlikowski, ABL program director, during a Nov. 12 statement announcing the successful ground-firing.
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Under development since 1996, the $1.1-billion ABL project aims to use a powerful, turret-mounted laser to disable enemy ballistic missiles during their boost phase by heating a basket-ball sized portion of the projectile's skin until it buckles.
Because of it's speed-of-light ability to kill, the ABL is the only system under testing that is able to detect and engage enemy missiles in their most vulnerable boost phases, MDA Airborne Laser officials said in response to written questions.
The Missile Defense Agency and U.S. Air Force is working in tandem with Boeing, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin to develop the flying laser system. Boeing is providing the aircraft, battle management and system integration, while Northrup Grumman has developed the laser and Lockheed Martin the weapon's flight turret.
Some ABL developers have said integrated flight tests could occur by the end of the year. In a Nov. 12 announcement, MDA officials said tests of the ABL's main laser would take several months, as engineers fine-tune the weapon and work to increase its firing time.
Lasers in the sky
While the primary weapon behind the ABL missile defense system is its Chemical, Oxygen, Iodine Laser (COIL), the aircraft is equipped with three other lasers and six infrared sensors that detect, track and target enemy targets. None of the ABL lasers -- including its primary weapon -- are visible to the naked eye, though MDA officials said they could be imaged in the infrared spectrum.
Six COIL modules -- each the size of a Chevy Suburban sport utitlity vehicle set on end -- work together to produce ABL's megawatt energy beam, which set fire to dust particles as it burned into a metal wall during a Nov. 10 ground test at Edwards Air Force Base in California. The entire test lasted just a fraction of a second.
"What's important is that the COIL produced photons," Pawlikowski said. "This proves the laser hardware is ready to go."
The COIL system is fueled by a syrupy mix of hydrogen, oxygen and salts that combine to make Basic Hydrogen Peroxide, a volatile compound about 20 times more viscous than water, MDA officials said.
Picking the most threatening target from a group of missiles, destroying it and moving on to the next one during a battle would have to occur faster than human gunners could operate, MDA officials said.
MDA designers anticipate enemy missiles to travel an average of about 4,000 miles (6,437 kilometers) an hour, and require a firing system capably of destroying those targets from distance of 100 miles (160 kilometers).
Instead, a computerized battle management system developed by Boeing controls the system, with human weapons crewmembers setting operational limits and providing any necessary mission modifications in flight. The system has successfully tracked Minutemen 2 and Lance missiles, as well as the afterburner plumes of F-16 jets.
MDA officials said the first ABL aircraft will serve as a research and development prototype, though it may have some "residual operational capability" once testing is complete.
Building the turret
Once ground tests are completed, the COIL modules will be installed in the aft end of the ABL aircraft, which Boeing engineers have extensively modified to handle the missile defense system. MDA officials said aircraft engineers left almost no part of the freighter untouched during its two-year refitting.
Perhaps the aircraft's most noticeable outward change to Boeing's 747-400 freighter is the bulbous turret that houses a 5-foot (1.5-meter) telescope serving as the exit point for the ABL weapon.
Designed to whip around and target enemy missiles, the ball-shaped turret is 10 feet (3 meters) in diameter and housed in an assembly that stretches 14 feet (4.2 meters) long, said Paul Shattuck, ABL technical lead at Lockheed Martin, in a telephone interview.
Composite materials keep the turret's weight to about 11,000 pounds (4,989kilograms) which while heavy is much less than if it were built out of aluminum or other traditional aircraft materials, he added.
"This is all first-of-a-kind hardware," Shattuck said. "I'm excited and I can't wait to get it in the air."
E-Weapons: Directed Energy Warfare In The 21st Century
By Leonard David January 11, 2006 Tech
LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico -- There is a new breed of weaponry fast approaching--and at the speed of light no less. They are labeled "directed-energy weapons" and may well signal a revolution in military hardware--perhaps more so than the atomic bomb.
Directed-energy weapons take the form of lasers, high-powered microwaves, and particle beams. Their adoption for ground, air, sea, and space warfare depends not only on using the electromagnetic spectrum, but also upon favorable political and budgetary wavelengths too.
That's the outlook of J. Douglas Beason, author of the recently published book: The E-Bomb: How America's New Directed Energy Weapons Will Change the Way Wars Will Be Fought in the Future (Da Capo Press, October 2005).Beason previously served on the White House staff working for the President's Science Advisor (Office of Science and Technology Policy) under both the Bush and Clinton Administrations.
After more than two decades of research, the United States is on the verge of deploying a new generation of weapons that discharge beams of energy, such as the Airborne Laser, the Active Denial System, as well as the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL).
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"History has shown that, without investment in high-technology, fighting the next war will be done using the last war type of technique," Beason told SPACE.com. Putting money into basic and long-range research is critical, Beason said, adding: "You can't always schedule breakthroughs."
A leading expert in directed-energy research for some 26 years, Beason is also Director of Threat Reduction here at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) - noting that his views are his own and do not represent LANL, the Department of the Defense, nor the Department of Energy.
Ripe for transformation?
Though considerable work has been done in lasers, high-power microwaves, and other directed-energy technologies, weaponization is still an ongoing process.
For example, work is on-going in the military's Airborne Laser program. It utilizes a megawatt-class, high-energy chemical oxygen iodine laser toted skyward aboard a modified Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Purpose of the program is to enable the detection, tracking and destruction of ballistic missiles in the boost phase, or powered part of their flight.
Similarly, testing of the U.S. Army's Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) in White Sands, New Mexico has shown the ability of heating high-flying rocket warheads, blasting them with enough energy that causes them to self-detonate. THEL uses a high-energy, deuterium fluoride chemical laser. A mobile THEL also demonstrated the ability to kill multiple mortar rounds.
Then there's Active Denial Technology--a non-lethal way to use millimeter-wave electromagnetic energy to stop, deter, and turn back an advancing adversary. This technology, supported by the U.S. Marines, uses a beam of millimeter waves to heat a foe's skin, causing severe pain without damage, and making the adversary flee the scene.
Beason also pointed to new exciting research areas underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Free-electron laser work with the Navy and a new type of directed-energy that operates in the terahertz region.
Niche for new technology
While progress in directed-energy is appreciable, Beason sees two upfront problems in moving the technology forward. First of all, "convincing the warfighter that there's a niche for this new type of weapon," and secondly making sure these new systems are not viewed as a panacea to solve all problems. "They are only another tool," he added.
Looming even larger is the role of those that acquire new weapons. "The U.S. could put ourselves in a very disastrous position if we allow our acquisition officials to be non-technically competent," Beason explained.
Over the decades, Beason said that the field of directed-energy has had its share of "snakeoil salesmen", as well as those advocates that over-promised. "It wasn't ready for prime time."
At present, directed-energy systems "are barely limping along with enough money just to prove that they can work," Beason pointed out. Meanwhile, huge slugs of money are being put into legacy-type systems to keep them going.
"It's a matter of priority," Beason said. The time is now to identify high-payoff, directed-energy projects for the smallest amounts of money, he said.
In Beason's view, Active Denial Technology, the Airborne Laser program, the THEL, as well as supporting technologies, such as relay mirrors--are all works in progress that give reason for added support and priority funding.
"I truly believe that as the airborne laser goes, so goes the rest of the nation's directed-energy programs. Right now, it's working on the margin. I believe that there are still 'unknown unknowns' out there that are going to occur in science and technology. We think we have the physics defined. We think we have the engineering defined. But something always goes wrong...and we're working too close at the margin," Beason said.
Step-wise, demonstration programs that spotlight directed-energy weapon systems are needed, Beason noted. Such in-the-field displays could show off greater beam distance-to-target runs, mobility of hardware, ease-of-operation, battlefield utility, and other attributes.
Directed-energy technologies can offer a range of applications, from botching up an enemy's electronics to performing "dial up" surgical, destructive strikes at the speed of light with little or no collateral damage.
Beason said that one blue sky idea of his own he tagged "the voice from heaven". By tuning the resonance of a laser onto the Earth's ionosphere, you can create audible frequencies. Like some boom box in the sky, the laser-produced voice could bellow from above down to the target below: "Put down your weapons."
Regarding use of directed-energy space weapons, Beason advised that "we'll eventually see it."
However, present-day systems are far too messy. Most high-powered chemical lasers -- in the megawatt-class -- require onboard fuels and oxidizers to crank out the amount of energy useful for strategic applications. Stability of such a laser system rooted in space is also wanting.
On the other hand, look to advances in more efficient lasers--especially solid state laser systems--Beason advised. "What breakthroughs are needed...I'm not sure. But, eventually, I think it's going to happen, but it is going to be a generation after the battlefield lasers."
Yet, having the directed-energy source "in space" contrasted to shooting beams "through space" is another matter, Beason quickly added. Space-based relay mirrors--even high-altitude airships equipped with relay mirrors--can direct ground-based or air-based laser beams nearly around the world, he said.
"So you're using space...exploiting it. But you are going through space to attack anywhere on Earth," Beason said.
Late last year, speaking before the Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C., Beason told his audience that laser energy, the power sources, beam control, as well as knowledge about how laser beams interact with Earth's atmosphere are quite mature. The technology is ready to shift into front line warfare status.
"The good news is that directed-energy exists. Directed-energy is being tested and within a few years directed-energy is going to be deployed upon the battlefield," Beason reported. "But the bad news is that acquisition policies right now in this nation are one more gear toward evolutionary practices rather than revolutionary practices."
"Visionaries win wars...and not bureaucrats. We've seen this through history," Beason observed.
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The US Navy Works Directed Energy Weapons
In the United States, the US Navy is the cutting edge service with regard to developing and deploying directed energy weapons technology.
In part this is because ships have enough power to generate the energy necessary to operate current and next generation DE technologies.
A laser has been deployed for some time onboard the USS Ponce, a retired MSC ship, and has been in operations downing drones in the Middle East. The CNO has made it clear that this is a technology, which will be deployed on ships in the near future.
The Afloat Forward Staging Base (Interim) USS Ponce (ASB(I) 15) conducts an operational demonstration of the Office of Naval Research (ONR)-sponsored Laser Weapon System (LaWS) while deployed to the Arabian Gulf. (U.S. Navy photo by John F. Williams/Released)
Notably, the new all electric ship, the DDG 1000 as well as the USS Ford have significant power sources. The new generation AC carrier has three times the power generation capacity of the Nimitz class and the new Queen Elizabeth as well has significant power generation capabilities, all clearly designed in part to use DE weapons for defensive capabilities onboard the ships.
It is clear as well that the US Navy has scaled down the power generation requirements for the first generation deployments so that already available DE technologies can be deployed by 2019 onboard surface ships.
With the new distributed lethality concept of the US Navy, it is clear that technologies and deployability are being looked at differently.
Namely, testing is necessary but deployment of early systems is crucial to provide a distributed capability even if it is not perfected.
This means that we will see DE coming to the fleet in the next couple of years
In an interview we did with N-9 last year, this is what Rear Admiral Manazir had to say about DE weapons.
We need directed energy weapons as adjuncts to our current kinetic weapon systems in order to turn the cost curve our way. For example, we shoot down cruise missiles that cost a couple hundred thousand dollars with $3 million defensive missiles.
Our weapons are very effective, but we shoot a $3 million round every time we use them.
We are working to build synergy among electronic attack, directed energy and kinetic weapons to shape an interactive and integrated capability for the distributed force.
We are moving towards funding a directed energy plan which would enable us to move towards implementing interim directed energy laser capability between now and 2020.
There’s a 30-kilowatt laser on USS PONCE right now.
It’s in the Arabian Gulf and it works.
It works very well.
As you know, lasers can be used for communications. They can be used for ISR.
They can obviously be used for non-kinetic effects.
In order to have the higher-end kinetic effect, you have to have the space for the weight of the laser itself, the power for it, and then the cooling-wherever the source.
Obviously, with a ship in the water, you have an unlimited source of cooling water.
Then, in order to have a very, very deep magazine for a laser shot, you either have to have a constant source of fairly high electrical power, or you have to have a very large battery.
We are not waiting until we have what many see as the ultimate goal, a one megawatt laser weapon; we would like to build capability incrementally.
Over time we will be able to field higher and higher power laser weapons.
It is about putting it into the fleet and evolving the capability; it is not about waiting until we have the optimal weapon.
We need not just the weapon, but the training and the tactics shaped by the fleet to provide inputs to how best to integrate the capability into the force.
In a later interview, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Moran, underscored the way ahead as follows:
The Navy is “fully committed” to developing and fielding advanced directed energy weapons to deal with emerging threats and to reduce the cost per shot, the Navy’s number two officer said today.
“We need to push technology forward” and do it faster than historic advances in fielding new weapons capabilities, Vice Chief of Naval Operations Adm. William Moran said at the Directed Energy Summit, cohosted by Booz Allen Hamilton and the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment.
Moran noted that the Navy had “already authorized a defensive weapon” and deployed it, citing the laser system mounted on the USS Ponce (AFSB(I)-15), which is on station in the U.S. Central Command theater.
The 30 kilowatt solid-state XN-1 laser on Ponce has been authorized for use as a defensive weapon, he said. The Navy “will field a 100-kilowatt system in the near future,” he added.
The Navy also is working to field high-power microwave systems, which can create unbearable heat on a person without lasting injury, to provide “enhance self-protection” with non-lethal system, Moran said. And, he warned, “these technologies are being developed and fielded by a lot of countries. If we don’t go forward, we will fall behind.”
Listing some of the advantages of directed energy weapons, Moran said they could provide “deep magazines” on warships so they do not have to use expensive and limited numbers of conventional weapons “on targets that you can handle with directed energy.”
Using directed energy weapons, which only require powerful burst of electrical power, also can reverse the negative cost-per-kill ratio of using multi-million-dollar defensive missiles against relatively cheap anti-ship cruise missiles, he indicated.
They would mean “spending pennies on the dollar” for defense, he said.
“Low-cost directed energy weapons have to be part of our future” and are being designed for use in the fleet today, Moran said.
“If we have to continue to rely on projectiles, we will run out of the ability to defend ourselves in the future,” he said.
“We are fully committed to taking this into the future.”
And earlier this year, John Joyce from the Naval Warfare Center Dahlgren Division published a story on April 21, 2017 which highlighted progress on directed energy weapons.
DAHLGREN, Va. – The Navy’s top laser experts transformed a tunnel crucial to gun range operations during World War II into a vital new capability for testing laser technologies, Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) announced April 21.
For years, civilian scientists – including those who developed and installed the Laser Weapon System aboard USS PONCE (AFSB[I] 15) – speculated about the long dormant 100-meter tunnel and its potential for laser lethality and system testing.
Could it be converted to research, test, develop, and evaluate a new generation of laser weapon systems for integration aboard warships?
Eventually, their question was answered and the old tunnel was upgraded. Now, it’s integral to the Navy’s state-of-the-art Laser Lethality and Development Laboratory.
“Our scientists and engineers are taking advantage of the Laser Lethality and Development Lab’s capabilities – including the above-ground tunnel – to innovate and evaluate high energy lasers that are interoperable with Navy ships and electric weaponry,” said Capt. Godfrey ‘Gus’ Weekes, NSWCDD commanding officer. “As we continue to develop and deploy laser weapons to the Fleet with the inherent advantages of directed energy – speed-of-light delivery, engagement precision, magazine depth, and scalable effects – our warfighters will have significant technological advantage over our adversaries.”
Navy leaders have made directed-energy weapons a top priority to counter asymmetric threats. In fact, Navy Sailors – trained by the NSWCDD Laser Weapon System team – proved how precise and effective a High Energy Laser weapon system can be during testing in the Arabian Gulf against small attack boats, unmanned aerial vehicles, and other moving targets in various weather conditions.
Meanwhile, the laser experts are using the Laser Lethality and Development Facility’s capabilities to support emerging initiatives to integrate future laser weapon systems aboard Navy ships. The facility features two labs where high power laser testing of materials, components, and sub-systems are conducted. The labs are connected by the above-ground tunnel which provides for the safe conduct of indoor testing at significant ranges while removing the effects and limitations of the highly variable outdoor environment.
“The facility, which is unique within the Navy, along with its suite of analysis tools are essential for designing, developing, and integrating laser technology into existing and future fighting forces and platforms,” said Frank Dixon, NSWCDD Directed Energy and Pulsed Power Division head.
The lab – primarily dedicated to performing laser effects testing – supports programs sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, Joint Directed Energy Transition Office, and Program Executive Office for Integrated Warfare Systems, among others. The testing determines environmental effects on laser performance, the response of target materials to laser energy, and provides input to the characterization of laser weapon system requirements.
“A capability such as this allows us to stay in front of high energy laser weapon lethality testing and modeling and simulation to support the current and growing number of Navy laser weapon programs,” said Dr. Christopher Lloyd, NSWCDD’s High Energy Laser Lethality lead.
“We’ll be able to expand the tunnel’s range further – up to 300 meters – with some unique test configurations,” said Lloyd. “It will soon enable testing in controlled environmental conditions to better replicate weather conditions in regions where deployed high energy laser systems may operate. We’ll be able to study aspects such as beam propagation effects from turbulence and scattering/absorption and how that affects overall system performance.”
Currently, the laboratory’s roof-top platform allows for operation and testing of laser systems across the Potomac River Test Range where naval guns have been tested since 1918. From this platform, high energy laser operations can be conducted over to the Combined Experimental Test Facility, a two story laser backstop located two to three kilometers across the water.
“The facility – coupled with our indoor and outdoor laser test capabilities – enhances the command’s ability to design, develop, test, and integrate next generation laser weapon systems for the Navy and is critical to the transition of these systems to the Fleet,” explained Dixon.
Environmental controls and a test and diagnostics facility will be added to the laboratory this year. The test and diagnostics facility will be capable of supporting more system-level tests. Future upgrades include installation of a wind tunnel to study laser/material interactions of components under higher wind speed conditions.
NSWCDD has provided leadership and technical expertise in the design, development, integration, and testing of directed energy systems for more than 15 years. The premier research and development center that serves as a specialty site for weapon system integration. The command’s unique ability to rapidly introduce new technology into complex warfighting systems is based on its longstanding competencies in science and technology, research and development, and test and evaluation.
2. Understanding the Impact of DEW
Man Finds Tree Burning From Inside In CaliforniaOct 13, 2017
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Now see Microwave DEW live in action. The "electrical" in the title is for distraction!
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Now see the trees burning from inside in Australia!
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Bolivian fires on August 17, 2019. Same phenomenon that happened in Australia happened here. pic.twitter.com/AulpVoowjL
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By Matt Daniel in EARTH | July 16, 2012
3. Active Denial Technology
Active Denial Technology
"Long-range prototype Active Denial Systems"
"The operator of a long range Active Denial System can observe potential threats at distances up to 1,000 meters."
"Research is ongoing on a next-generation Active Denial System that will have increased mobility."
"Active Denial Technology is a non-lethal, counter-personnel capability that creates a heating sensation, quickly repelling potential adversaries with minimal risk of injury.
- Force Protection
- Perimeter Defense
- Crowd Control
- Defensive and Offensive Operations"
Active Denial Technology Videos
Solid State - Active Denial Technology
ARDEC. 23 Oct 2013. www.dvidshub.net
With The Gear: Bringing the Heat With the Active Denial System
Sgt. Justin Boling and Lance Cpl. Clayton Filipowicz. 24 Sept 2013. www.dvidshub.net
Active Denial System Undergoes Demonstration
Lance Cpl. Clayton Filipowicz. 18 Sept 2013. www.dvidshub.net
Active Denial System
Lance Cpl. Kayla Miller. 17 May 2012. www.dvidshub.net
Active Denial System Demo
Sgt. Andrew Milner. 9 Mar 2012. www.dvidshub.net
Active Denial System Maritime Environment Demonstration
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video. 11 Apr 2006. www.dvidshub.net
Active Denial System/Counter Personnel
Edited by Laurie Alegria. jnlwp.defense.gov
ADS Informational Video
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video
ADS Military Utility Assessment Video
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video
ADS Military Scenario Video 1
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video
ADS Military Scenario Video 2
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video
ADS Media Exposure Video
Official Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Video
Multimedia (photography, video and audio) on the Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapons Program website is cleared for public release and considered to be in the public domain. It is requested that credit be given to the individual author and Service whenever possible.