- Natural and artificial earthquakes
- Collection of News and Documents
- Earth is cracking under fracking!
- Fracking earthquakes are killing Italians!
- Netherlands stops fracking after earthquakes!
- Fracking cases earthquakes in Africa!
- Other earthquakes for fracking!
- Business value of Fracking, after earthquakes! Deadly Case of Haiti!
- Treaty on Civil Nuclear Explosions
- Earthquake Visualization
- Vulcanism by Fracking in Hawaii
It is NUCLEAR FRACTURING, not hydraulic!
1. Natural and artificial earthquakes
Please first look at this video, as all fracking begins with Gasbuggy!
It is like talking about clouds, growing grass, trees, blowing wind etc. as all these exist also naturally. Having something in nature, doesn't mean that it cannot be induced artificially. For a layman it may be hard to see the difference between natural and industrial clouds, because when the knowledge is missed, the imagination cannot develop.
So how can we see the difference between natural and artificial earthquakes?
How can we associate earthquakes with any seismic activity?
It is simple, we observe if any tool of seismic blasting, any kind of "research" or production activities for hydraulic fracturing of shale oil and gas is done in a region.
Even that correlation may now become hard, because particularly in the USA no region is safe from fracking. Earthquakes and poisoning is the "new normal". Now nuclear fracturing is applied all over the world. People die in Latin America, New Zealand, Indonesia and elsewhere. It is not very difficult to observe the result. The fracking sites and wells can be seen on satellite images from google or other providers. You just need to learn how they look.
We cannot assume that the perpetrators trigger earthquakes just for fun and without any profitable intention. The earthquakes are always part of the preparation and extension of a shale gas extraction site.
They may use also other technologies, but the foremost method are huge explosions with civil nuclear explosives, which always cause a detectable earthquake. I don't buy the idea, that it is only caused by pressing water into the wells, because before they can press the water the rock formation needs to be already cracked.
Look at the following video and imagine, such or a much bigger mining demolitions for fracking for offshore gas and petrol, some kilometers under the ground of the coasts!
Would this trigger a deadly earthquake like the ones in Haiti, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, Greece, Italy, Greenland, Norway, New Zealand etc.?
You just need this example as an analogy, to understand the earthquakes caused by fracking!
They press the water vapor, together with fine quartz sand and some oil binding chemicals, probably Tensides, after the rock is brocken in fine pieces. The quartz sand server as a separator material to prevent the closure of rock fissures.
Sometimes, the explosion serves as a leverage for triggering a huge and disastrous earthquake. As long as the geoengineering mafia is not under control and not disclosing its criminal activities by hiding behind state secret protection, apologized by the need for "energy security", we should assume any earthquake on Earth as a criminal act.
How can we forget the death and damage in Haiti, Italy, Costa Rica, Indonesia etc. etc.
2. Collection of News and Documents
Earthquakes! Fracking Can Trigger Earthquakes
"Multiple studies have concluded that injection increases the likelihood that large earthquakes elsewhere will set off earthquakes near the injection site. Instances of remote triggering happen when faults are “critically loaded” with high pressures of fluid.5"
It's Official: Injection of Fracking Wastewater Caused Kansas’ Biggest Earthquake
Energy Oct. 14, 2016 10:45AM EST
"The Wichita Eagle noted from the study that this man-made quake, which hit 40 miles southwest of Wichita and felt as far away as Memphis, likely came from just one or two nearby wells. The publication ominously noted that, "one of those two wells, operated by SandRidge Energy, is still injecting water at the same level as when the earthquake occurred two years ago."
The USGS scientists believe that the 4.9-magnitude earthquake was triggered by wastewater injection for the following reasons:"
"Within the central and eastern United States, the number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years. Between the years 1973–2008, there was an average of 21 earthquakes of magnitude three and larger in the central and eastern United States. This rate jumped to an average of 99 M3+ earthquakes per year in 2009–2013, and the rate continues to rise. In 2014, alone, there were 659 M3 and larger earthquakes. Most of these earthquakes are in the magnitude 3–4 range, large enough to have been felt by many people, yet small enough to rarely cause damage. There were reports of damage from some of the larger events, including the M5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake and the M5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake.""This increase in earthquakes prompts two important questions:
- Are they natural, or man-made?
- What should be done in the future as we address the causes and consequences of these events to reduce associated risks?"
"Increasing Rate of Earthquakes Beginning in 2009"
The real Hockey Stick!
Oil and gas wastewater is changing the Earth's surface, study finds http://mashable.com/2016/09/22/earthquakes-wastewater-disposal-study/
"That process has sparked a wave of earthquakes across the central United States, transforming the Earth both above and below the surface, according to a study published Thursday in the journal Science."
"Wastewater not only puts pressure on underground fault lines, causing "induced" earthquakes, but also pushes up the surface of the ground — a phenomenon called "uplifting" that can be seen from space."
"Researchers used satellite images of ground uplifting to show how wastewater disposal in eastern Texas eventually triggered a magnitude-4.8 earthquake in May 2012, the largest earthquake recorded in that half of the Lone Star state."
LNG: Having spent $200b to export gas, is Australia about to import it?
World’s Biggest Seismic Testing “Blast” Ship – Amazon Warrior – Parked on top of New Zealand Fault Line
Source: Media Whores, November 14, 2016
Study confirms link between fracking, earthquakes in Western Canada
Earthquake Experts: Yes, Fracking Earthquakes Are A Thing
May 3rd, 2014 by Tina Casey
Study Confirms Earthquakes In Ohio Were Triggered By Fracking
New Report: Offshore Fracking Threatens California's Ocean, Air, Seismic Safety
"10 Widely Used Fracking Chemicals Endanger Marine Life, Analysis Finds"
New Zealand Earthquake: The world’s biggest offshore seismic blasting ship the Amazon Warrior
WHAT IS SEISMIC TESTING?
Sizing up the dangers of oil exploration along the East Coast
Why quakes weren't caused by seismic blasting or 'unzipping' faultline
Speaker: Benefits of seismic blasting not worth the risks
World’s Biggest Seismic Testing “Blast” Ship – Amazon Warrior – Parked on top of New Zealand Fault Line
Earthquake Experts: Yes, Fracking Earthquakes Are A Thing
Magnitude 6.3 quake hits southern Peru
6.5-magnitude earthquake strikes off California coast
In Canada, a Direct Link Between Fracking and Earthquakes
HENRY FOUNTAIN NOV. 17, 2016
This Is How Fracking Can Cause Earthquakes
Today's biggest earthquakes.
Earthquakes in Pennsylvania by David Pacchioli, January 25, 2017
"Then there are the reasons related to oil and gas activities—induced seismicity, possibly by fracking and more probably by wastewater disposal."
Seismograph traces due to blasting activity look very different from those due to earthquakes (shown above).
Image: Courtesy of Andrew Nyblad
3. Earth is cracking under fracking!
Large and growing crack in mountain causes power shut down in Logan Town, Pennsylvania
Giant crack appears in the foothills of Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming
Drone footage shows very large earth crack on Britain's Jurassic Coast
Large and growing earth crack causes severe damage to Aponte, Colombia
Mexico City is sinking! More gigantic earthcracks in Valley of Mexico
Massive earth crack swallows 6 km of road, Paraguay
Vasquez Canyon Road, California suffers extensive distortion on a longer time frame
4. Fracking earthquakes are killing Italians!
Sblocca Italia: Extractivism made in Italy
"The Unlock Italy Law, recently passed in the Italian parliament, is a festival of deregulation and legalised plunder. From fossil fuel extraction to construction permits, the country is put on sale to restart growth. But from the targeted territories, social movements are waging resistance. And they bring another idea of prosperity."
Earthquakes and fracking, international studies reveal relationship: "pay more attention to a country as fragile as Italy"
"It is evidence, facts studied worldwide as evidenced by the recent article by 'Scientific American' for which earthquakes can be caused by fracking and drilling of oil and gas,"
Italy’s deadly earthquake is the latest in a history of destruction
Italian oil drilling referendum, 2016
"A referendum on oil and natural gas drilling was held in Italy on 17 April 2016. The referendum was on the proposed repealing of a law that allows gas and oil drilling concessions extracting hydrocarbon within 12 nautical miles of the Italian coast to be prolonged until the exhaustion of the useful life of the fields."
"Although 86% voted in favour of repealing the law, the turnout of 31% was below the majority threshold required to validate the result."
Italian region says fracking may have caused quakes
"Italy's Emilia-Romagna region has suspended new drilling as it published a report that warned that hydrocarbon exploitation may have acted as a "trigger" in twin earthquakes that killed 26 people in 2012."
"The scientific report, published on Tuesday, was commissioned after the quakes amid popular anger over alleged links to drilling activities, particularly an oil field, a gas storage facility and a geothermal energy plant in the area."
"The report said that activity at the Mirandola oil fields "may have contributed to trigger the Emilia seismic activity" although it did not "induce" it."
"It found that the last previous tremor in the region and the first quake on May 20 were "statistically correlated with an increase of extraction and injection activity" at one of the Mirandola fields."
"The report was authored by an international committee of scientists led by Peter Styles, a professor of applied geophysics at Keele University in Britain."
C’è un legame tra fracking e terremoti?
[ Is there a link between fracking and earhtquakes? ]
"Una serie di scosse avvenute nella cittadina di Timpson sarebbe stata causata dall’iniezione nel sottosuolo di acqua reflua derivata dall’attività di estrazione"
["A series of shocks that occurred in the town of Timpson was caused by the injection into the ground of waste water derived from the activity of extraction"]
Fracking in Italia?
Shale gas means pollution and seismic risks, says Gazprom chief
"Shale gas is produced by means of hydraulic fracturing based on pumping a mixture of water and chemicals into boreholes at high pressure in order to crack up the rock and release the gas. This inevitably leads to environmental damage. Apart from huge water consumption, this production method may lead to pollution of underground water and even provoke seismic activity. And as far as Europe is concerned, it is still too early to talk about large-scale production potential."
Fracking, chi dice ‘in Italia mai’?
[ Fracking, who says 'never in Italy'? ]
5. Netherlands stops fracking after earthquakes!
Shell and Exxon's €5bn problem: gas drilling that sets off earthquakes and wrecks homes
"Groningen has been one of Europe’s richest gas fields for 30 years, and thousands of people say their homes have been damaged by the tremors that drilling sets off. Now a class action may finally bring them compensation – and force a rethink of European energy security"
Shored-up homes are a common sight in earthquake-hit Groningen
"Natural gas drilling in Groningen provides 70% of the Netherlands’ gas supply, but has caused thousands of earthquakes, escalating in intensity over the last few decades."
Niederlande: Tausende wütend über Beben wegen Gasbohrungen
Mehr dazu: https://t.co/KE8ArKLNWF pic.twitter.com/y0DT1Bl5C6 — RT Deutsch (@RT_Deutsch) January 20, 2018
6. Fracking cases earthquakes in Africa!
Did fracking in Botswana cause Johannesburg to tremble?
7. Other earthquakes for fracking!
Schweres Erdbeben der Stärke 7,0 vor Mexikos Westküste:
Erdbeben der Stärke 8,1 in Mexiko:
Schweres Erdbeben erschüttert türkische Küste:
Lesbos kommt nicht zur Ruhe: Wieder starke Erdstöße in der Ägäis
Greenland tsunami leaves four people missing
In der Nordsee hat die Erde stark gewackelt. Die Stöße sollen einen Wert von 4,9 auf der Richterskala erreicht haben.
"Immer wieder kommt es im nördlichen Teil der Nordsee zu Erdbeben. Ein Zusammenhang zur Erdölförderung wird oft vermutet, eindeutige Beweise gibt es aber nicht. (cho)"
This one may be more as Geophypsical Warfare!
Erdbeben der Stärke 5,8 in der Nähe von Nordkorea registriert:
Seebeben erschüttert Mittelmeerinsel Kreta
16.07.2017, 09:15 Uhr | Alexia Angelopoulou, dpa
"Ein Seebeben der Stärke 5,3 auf der Richterskala hat am späten Samstagabend die Mittelmeerinsel Kreta erschüttert. Das Zentrum lag nur wenige Kilometer südöstlich der Küste der Insel."
"Zeugen berichteten von einem lauten Brummen gegen 23.30 Uhr (Ortszeit), bevor sekundenlang die Erde wackelte. Über Schäden war bis zum Sonntagmorgen nichts bekannt. In der Nacht verzeichnete das Seismologische Zentrum Europa-Mittelmeer etliche Nachbeben."
The NLP spinners of the climate control mafia have designed a new notion for the scam: "cascadian megaquakes"
This cascade of earthquakes, where some may also be "mega" is nothing else but a chain of huge deep subsurface explosions to fracture the rock for pressing out the oil and gas out of it, but the criminal henchmen have a fraudy explanation for us, the sheeple.
But please read to learn how they connect earthquakes with "natural gas" reserves. :-)
Revising an Innovative Way to Study Cascadia Megaquakes
"Using data collected on a cruise by the R/V Marcus G. Langseth, the researchers found significant variations in temperature within this section of the Cascadia subduction zone, as well as signs ofgas hydrates (ice-like deposits that form from natural gas at the bottom of the ocean) throughout the region. They also detected that most fluids from the deep move upward through the accretionary wedge instead of through the crust, which is different than in most other subduction zones. This change in fluid pathway prevents the plate from cooling and reduces the area where an earthquake might rupture along the two plates: completely within the accretionary wedge, rather than under the continental plate."
Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Israel eye longest offshore gas pipeline
EURACTIV.com with AFP 3. Apr. 2017
"Italy, Israel, Greece and Cyprus pledged today (3 April) to move ahead with the world’s longest undersea gas pipeline from the eastern Mediterranean to southern Europe, with support from the European Union.
If carried out as planned, the long-discussed $6.2 billion (€5.8 billion) pipeline will take gas from Israel and Cyprus’s recently discovered offshore gas reserves to Europe, potentially reducing European dependence on Russian energy at a time of ongoing tensions."
8. Business value of Fracking, after earthquakes! Deadly case of Haiti!
Haiti oil reserves are now worth $120 billion
September 15, 2015
"Here is why: Haitians are poor; however, the land of Haiti is rich with natural resources. Foreign nations have unleashed huge media propaganda campaigns to paint Haiti in strongly negative lights so everyone believes their lies while they are stealing the precious wealth of Haiti.
SEE ALSO: The nightmare of $13 billion dollars of Haitian donations in the hands of the Clintons will break your heart
Folks here is the truth: Haiti’s oil reserves are now worth $120 billion US dollars. That means the country of Haiti is among the ONE percent wealthiest nations on earth with its oil resources."
Haiti could have larger oil reserves than Venezuela
"Amidst the utter devastation left in the wake of the earthquake that rocked Haiti on January 12th, new findings indicate the existence of 3 million barrels of oil in a shallow formation offshore the island."
"The Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and their offshore waters, probably hold at least 142 million barrels of oil and 159 billion cubic feet of gas, according to a 2000 report by the US Geological Survey. Undiscovered amounts may be as high as 941 million barrels of oil and 1.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, according to the report."
Haitian Earthquake May Lead To Discovery Of Oil And Gas
Written By cganemccalla Posted January 28, 2010
"The earthquake that killed more than 150,000 people in Haiti this month may have left clues to petroleum reservoirs that could aid economic recovery in the Western Hemisphere’s poorest nation, a geologist said."
"The Jan. 12 earthquake was on a fault line that passes near potential gas reserves, said Stephen Pierce, a geologist who worked in the region for 30 years for companies including the former Mobil Corp. The quake may have cracked rock formations along the fault, allowing gas or oil to temporarily seep toward the surface, he said yesterday in a telephone interview."
"“A geologist, callous as it may seem, tracing that fault zone from Port-au-Prince to the border looking for gas and oil seeps, may find a structure that hasn’t been drilled,” said Pierce, exploration manager at Zion Oil & Gas Inc., a Dallas- based company that’s drilling in Israel. “A discovery could significantly improve the country’s economy and stimulate further exploration.”"
HAITI: Did Mining and Oil Drilling Trigger Earthquake?
Posted on January 23, 2010
"Marguerit Laurent, Haitian activist and head of the Haitian Lawyers Leadership Network has written an intriguing article regarding the possibility that mining and drilling activities triggered the earthquake. You can read her article here. In Marguerite’s article, you will find a map of the current mining and oil drilling locations in Haiti. The article offers many sources of information which you may wish to check out. "
Oil in Haiti? What a Surprise. Not!
Thursday, February 18, 2010
"Then suddenly, after spending years hitting myself against Officialdom’s colonial rock that kept denying Haiti had significant resources. After being called crazy and un-American for writing that the 2010 earthquake gives the US the perfect disaster-capitalism opportunity to come out from behind the UN and openly occupy Haiti to secure Haiti’s oil, strategic location and other riches for the corporatocracy. Just after I wrote about oil drilling causing earthquakes, on the following Tuesday, a veteran oil company man comes forward in Businessweek to say, and one wonders how he can so authoritatively speculate about the area of the faultline without intimate knowledge of the drillings, explorations, Haiti’s wellheads and oil map, et al, but nonetheless his sudden, seemingly unprompted revelation, is that Haiti lies in an area that has undiscovered amounts of oil, it must have oil and the earthquake ‘may have left clues’ to petroleum reservoirs! Oil that, uhmmm, ‘could aid economic recovery in the Western Hemisphere’s poorest nation, a geologist said.’."
DID MINING AND OIL DRILLING TRIGGER THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE?
January 27, 2010 Edward Long
"From what I’ve read, drilling deep into the earth digging and mining may trigger earthquakes. And, drilling either for fossil fuels or renewable energy exploration may cause earthquakes. Both geophysicists and oilmen agree that natural-gas drilling trigger earthquakes. One oilman stated that “there is not the slightest doubt” that gas production caused the temblors.” (See, At Fault: Does Drilling Cause Earthquakes?)."
Oil in Haiti: Reasons for the US Occupation, Part II
By Marguerite Laurent (Ezili Danto)
Global Research, January 30, 2010, Open Salon 29 January 2010
"I wrote Part 1 of Oil in Haiti as the economic reasons for the US/UN occupation back in October, 2009.
After the earthquake I questioned whether oil drilling could have triggered the earthquake: Did mining and oil drilling trigger the Haiti earthquake?
Then suddenly, after spending years hitting myself against Officialdom’s colonial rock that kept denying Haiti had significant resources….
After being called crazy and un-American for writing that the 2010 earthquake gives the US the perfect disaster-capitalism opportunity to come out from behind the UN and openly occupy Haiti to secure Haiti’s oil, strategic location and other riches for the corporatocracy…"
More from Ezili Danto about Haiti:
Now it should be clear why the USA is seeking some "peaceful solution" with Cuba!
Heavy oil production rising, but exploration low in Cuba
"Exploratory drilling is at a low level in Cuba, but development drilling by one group has boosted domestic production to its highest level in years.
The country generated little interest last year when it first offered Gulf of Mexico blocks during a period of historically low oil prices. Now at $30 oil it plans to re-assess interest in that area and other opportunities with a presentation at the World Petroleum Congress in Calgary this June."
"The production increases consist of heavy oil from fractured reservoirs near Havana in Cuba's northern basin."
"The chief joint-venture operator of wells in Cuba, Sherritt International Corp., Toronto, said new oil treatment facilities at Puerto Escondido and a new pipeline from the Varadero area to the Matanzas supertanker port are to be completed in first half 2000. The facilities are expected to alleviate current limits on production from north-coast fields."
To find the earthquake centers in the USA just look at the oil gas reservoir sites.
It is from this aricle!
Chapter 6 - Fault Systems and Earthquakes
Haitian President Testifies Against Clintons:
'They Raped and Pillaged Haiti' Bernard Sansaricq accuses Bill and Hillary Clinton 'raping and pillaging Haitian people'
By: Jay Greenberg |@NeonNettle on 23rd January 2018 @ 12.13pm
“Then in 2010, after the earthquake in Haiti not only American taxpayers but the whole world has given billions of dollars to the Clinton Foundation for the Haitians."
"Not even 2% of that money went back to Haiti."
“So Mr. Trump, we are asking you, begging you, the Haitian community will side with you if one day, you ask Hillary Clinton publicly to disclose the audit of all of the money they have stolen from Haiti in 2010 after the earthquake."
9. Treaty on Civil Nuclear Explosions
Nothing occurs in international realm without an according "treaty", "agreement" or similar. The most important one was signed by USA and Soviet Union. The official "entering in force in 1990" should not irritate. Since 1976 civil nuclear explosions were applied on both sides and were accordingly observed. After 1990 began the global roll-out of explosions for fracking!
Treaty Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions For Peaceful Purposes (and Protocol Thereto) (PNE Treaty)
BUREAU OF ARMS CONTROL, VERIFICATION, AND COMPLIANCE
Signed at Washington and Moscow May 28, 1976, Entered into force December 11, 1990
"In preparing the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) in July 1974, the United States and the Soviet Union recognized the need to establish an appropriate agreement to govern underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes (PNEs). There is no essential distinction between the technology of a nuclear explosive device which would be used as a weapon and the technology of a nuclear explosive device used for a peaceful purpose.""Negotiations on the PNE agreement contemplated in Article III of the TTBT began in Moscow on October 7, 1974, and after six negotiating sessions over a period of 18 months, resulted in the Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes in April 1976.""In the PNE Treaty the United States and the Soviet Union agreed: not to carry out any individual nuclear explosions having a yield exceeding 150 kilotons; not to carry out any group explosion (consisting of a number of individual explosions) having an aggregate yield exceeding 1,500 kilotons; and not to carry out any group explosion having an aggregate yield exceeding 150 kilotons unless the individual explosions in the group could be identified and measured by agreed verification procedures. The parties also reaffirmed their obligations to comply fully with the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.""The parties reserve the right to carry out nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the territory of another country if requested to do so, but only in full compliance with the yield limitations and other provisions of the PNE Treaty and in accord with the Non-Proliferation Treaty. "
"1. No explosion shall be conducted at a distance in meters from the ground surface less than 30 times the 3.4 root of the planned yield of that explosion in kilotons."According this specification, the depth of explosion would be:
|KTN||Depth in Meters|
"3. No less than 180 days prior to the planned date of the beginning of emplacement of the explosive or explosives for every explosion having a planned yield exceeding 35 kilotons, the Party carrying out the explosion shall notify the Verifying Party of its intention to carry out the explosion ...""1. The term "emplacement hole" means the entire interior of any drill hole, shaft, adit or tunnel in which an explosive, associated cables, and other equipment are installed for the purposes of carrying out an explosion."
Reason of secrecy about fracking explosions!
"2. Public release of the information provided in accordance with this Protocol or publication of material using such information may take place only with the agreement of the Party carrying out an explosion. Public release of the results of observation or measurements made by Designated Personnel may take place only with the agreement of both Parties."
Peaceful Nuclear Explosions
"(Updated July 2010)
- The USA and Russia have investigated and trialled the use of nuclear explosions for civil engineering purposes, though only one significant construction resulted: a dam in Kazakhstan.
- Russia has used nuclear explosions to extinguish major gas well fires.
- Some 150 experiments spanned 1957-75 in the USA and 1965-89 in the USSR.
- PNEs will be banned under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty when it enters into force."
"Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act requires the conclusion of a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement for significant transfers of nuclear material, equipment, or components from the United States to another nation. Moreover, such agreements, commonly referred to as “123 Agreements,” facilitate cooperation in other areas, such as technical exchanges, scientific research, and safeguards discussions.
In conjunction with other nonproliferation tools, particularly the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) ,123 Agreements help to advance U.S. nonproliferation principles. They establish the legal framework for significant nuclear cooperation with other countries. In order for a country to enter into a 123 Agreement with the United States, that country must commit to U.S.-mandated nuclear nonproliferation norms.
The U.S. State Department is responsible for negotiating 123 Agreements, with the technical assistance and concurrence of DOE/NNSA and consultation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As of January 20, 2017, the United States has entered into 23 such agreements that govern peaceful nuclear cooperation with 48 countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governing authorities on Taiwan, as detailed below."
"States that have Agreements for Cooperation with the United States:Agreements in force as of January 20, 2017 (entry into force and expiration dates)
- Argentina (16 October 1997/16 October 2027)
- Australia (22 December 2010/22 December 2040 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- Brazil (15 September 1999/15 September 2029)
- Canada (21 July 1955/1 January 2030 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- China (29 October 2015/29 October 2045)
- Egypt (29 December 1981/29 December 2021)
- European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)1 (12 April 1996/12 April 2026 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (6 June 2014/6 June 2054)
- India (6 December 2008/6 December 2048 with rolling 10-year extensions)
- Indonesia (30 December 1981/30 December 2031)
- Japan (17 July 1988/17 July 2018 but remains in force until terminated by a Party)
- Kazakhstan (5 November 1999/5 November 2029)
- Korea, Republic of (ROK) (25 November 2015/25 November 2040)
- Morocco (16 May 1981/16 May 2021 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- Norway (19 January 2017/19 January 2047)
- Russian Federation (11 January 2011/11 January 2041)
- South Africa (4 December 1997/4 December 2022)
- Switzerland (23 June 1998/23 June 2028 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- Taiwan2 (22 June 2014/indefinite)
- Turkey (2 June 2008/2 June 2023 with rolling 5-year extensions)
- Ukraine (28 May 1999/28 May 2029)
- United Arab Emirates (17 December 2009/17 December 2039)
- Vietnam (3 October 2014/3 October 2044 with rolling 5-year extensions)"
10. Earthquake Visualization
Visualization of 2004 Sumatra Quake and Tsunami
#RT @IRIS_EPO has a fantastic #Seismic #wave visualization tool showing #earthquake waves traveling through the #Earth's interior & across the surface using real examples. Check it out: https://t.co/7XjvpFF3tu pic.twitter.com/jVdBtFXVpb — Raspberry Shake (@raspishake) March 10, 2018Seismic Shadow Zones http://ds.iris.edu/seismon/swaves/help/moreInfo.html
11. Vulcanism by Fracking in Hawaii!
Did fracking cause Hawii volcano eruption?
Wow. Otherworldly video of the Kilauea volcanic eruption on Hawaii's Big Island. pic.twitter.com/f8u9ZjenKx — WeatherNation (@WeatherNation) May 20, 2018
The latest on Hawaii's Kilauea volcano eruptionhttps://t.co/cSDFhzAxan pic.twitter.com/7Faberb0oV — Planet Green (@PlanetGreen) May 21, 2018
WOW. Somehow I missed this video of fissure 18 erupting in Hawaii on May 14th.
This was uploaded to Fobos Planet but PLEASE let me know if you know who to give full credit to... #geology #science #volcano #fissure #eruption #magma #lava #hawaii #leilanieruption #lavanews pic.twitter.com/OSj8My0Vb6 — Rockodile Boyce (@volcanojulie) May 18, 2018
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