Non-Conventional fracking always mean Atom-Bomb!
Revolutionary fracking also always means Atom-Bomb!
New technology for fracking also always means Atom-Bomb!
Radioactivity is inevitable during fracking of oil and gas!
Earthquakes are inevitable during fracking of oil and gas!
Tsunamis are very likely during offshore fracking of oil and gas!
How could we all ever forget the "revolutionary" use of "civil" nuclear technology and that hydraulic fracturing is not merely "hydraulic". The method of Nuclear Fracturing was well documented and shown to the public, when people still did not fear from earthquakes, tsunamis and radioactivity by atom bombs.
Nuclear_Fracking_Sounds from Enkidu Gilgamesh on Vimeo.
This article contains the full documentary film transcript of "THE ATOM UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR FRACKING OF NATURAL GAS ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 32212" which is one of the historic treasures secured and made public by Periscope Film LLC.
Dear reader, if You offer me the translation of this article into your preferred native language, I will integrate it into the blog and maybe also put the transcript as subtitles into the youtube video.
############## Beginning of the film script #################
This is the story of a new effective way for man to recover natural resources
valuable natural resources that are often locked deep beneath the surface of the Earth.
This is the story of how atomic energy is applied to this important problem
This is the story of Atom Underground!
Natural gas, one of our important sources of energy is used by millions of households and industrial customers
in many parts of the country and the world and the number is expected to increase greatly.
Natural gas is found underground from depths of few hundreds to several miles.
To make natural gas available for consumption, a well has to be drilled to the rock formation containing the gas.
This gas bearing areas are oftenly referred to as reservoirs,
which leads some people to think that natural gas or oil is gathered in caverns, but that is not the case!
Natural gas occurs in rock that is frequently as solid as concrete.
In this rock the gas exists under tremendously high pressure, in tiny spaces that may be invisible to the unaided eye.
When a gas bearing formation is tapped, the gas under high pressure flows to the well and rises to the surface.
In some fields the gas bearing rock is highly porous and the tiny channels between the pours permit a relatively free flow of the gas to the wellbore.
However great quantities of natural gas are also contained in very tight formations.
The pathways connecting the spaces that hold the gas may be so narrow that the flow of gas is greatly reduced or cannot flow to the wellbore at all.
Therefore for many years it was practice to use nitroglycerin in these formations,
detonating it to cause cracks to stimulate the flow of gas to the wellbore and increase the total amount of gas recovered.
The search for even more efficient methods to stimulate the production of natural gas and oil suggested to use of the enormous energy of atomic explosions.
US Atomic Energy Commission in line with the Atoms for Peace Program has established a research and development program in the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions in 1957.
The program was given the name Plowshare, expressing the hope that Prophet Isaiah's prediction for peace may after all come to reality (ISAIAH II:IV "... and they shall beat their swords into plowshares ...").
Underground nuclear explosions will take their place along with conventional chemical explosions and most likely achieve an ever growing importance.
Enormous energy, compact and easily transportable, relatively inexpensive.
This is he new power tool, that Plowshare will add to mans resources, to do jobs never before economically practical or even possible.
To illustrate: A nuclear explosive of 10 kilotons, that is equivalent of 10.000 tons of TNT, could be as small as 1 foot diameter and 3 feet long.
The price could be about $350.000,--.
However in contrast 10.000 tons of TNT would fill a large sphere, more than 80 feet in diameter and would cost about $5 million, more than 15 times as much.
Furthermore if one increases the nuclear yield 200 times up to 2 megatons, nuclear package could be a little more that 3 feet in diameter and 10 feet long and the price doesn't even double ( $600,000.-- ),
but to increase the yield of TNT to 200 times, one would have to increase its size 200 times, ending up with (2,000,000 tons) enough TNT to fill thousands of freight cars. The price of the TNT would increase to more than 1 billion Dollars.
This was the first experiment using an atomic explosion for industrial purposes. This project of the Plowshare Program received the name Gasbuggy.
The place: New Mexico! Objective: To study the use of underground explosions in a gas bearing formation to stimulate the flow and production of natural gas.
In December 1967, a 27 kiloton nuclear device [2x Hiroshima Atom Bomb] was detonated 4240 feet (1292.35 meter) underground.
Cooperating on the project were US Atomic Energy Commission, The El Paso Natural Gas Company, the Bureau of Mines of US Department of Interior and technical direction came from the University of California's Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.
The Gasbuggy experiment showed that the nuclear detonation vaporized the surrounding rock, creating a giant cavity and fracturing the formation in all directions.
In about one minute the ceiling of the cavity collapsed, resulting in a rubble filled chimney.
Extensive fracturing through the gas producing formation provided many new channels for the gas to flow to the wellbore.
Estimates indicate that the gas flow was increased many times.
In only a few months Gasbuggy produced as much gas as nearby conventional wells had developed in years of production.
With the results of Gasbuggy still being analyzed, the government and private industry,
this time represented by the Austral Oil Company and CER Geonuclear Corporation are cooperating in a second gas stimulation test involving a 40 kiloton [3x Hiroshima Atom Bomb] detonation, 8400 feet (2560.32 meter) underground in Colorado, Project Ruleson.
What will be the effect on gas stimulation of a bigger detonation at greater depths in a different kind of a gas bearing formation.
Even preliminary answers are encouraging. Other gas stimulation studies are in development, showing that the new technology has solid commercial promise.
Similarly nuclear explosions may be useful to increase oil reserves.
The nuclear explosion could also be used to improve the flow of oil through oil bearing rock formations.
This would result in greater total oil recovery than is possible by conventional means.
Thus marginal oil reserves become economically profitable.
Atomic energy may be used not only for production but also for storage of natural gas and oil.
The flow of gas from producing wells to the consumer is subject to considerable change due to the irregularity of demand.
Therefore storage facilities have to be provided near the consumer market to store the surplus gas when consumption is slower than production.
But in winter or another times of peak demand surplus can be released to the users.
Above ground storage is very expensive and often unattractive. Natural underground storage is already at capacity.
Again, industry is looking at the Plowshare Program for the answer.
The concept has been developed for using nuclear explosions to create underground storage reservoirs.
Natural gas can be pumped under pressure into the chimney of broken rock and large quantities could be further stored in cracks and fissures extending from the chimney.
About 500 million cubic feet (14.15 Million cubic meter) of gas could be stored under pressure in the void space created by a 25 kiloton explosion.
Tremendous amounts of gas could be withdrawn from the chimney in a single day to meet peak demands,
enough to supply the heating requirements of thousands of homes and factories under coldest day in winter.
Crude oil and other petroleum products could also be stored in a cavity deep below the earth, created by a nuclear explosion.
Water too could be accumulated in similar cavities
and even wastes and harmful products could be safely disposed off deep underground in this way.
Oil shale, next to coal is the second most abundant fuel resource in the United States.
It is more plentiful than oil and natural gas, but no economical way has been found to get the oil out of the shale.
Oil shale, which does not contain liquid oil is the most unusual soft rock that burns when it is heated about 700°F (371,11°C).
It decomposes into liquid oil, similar to petroleum, gas and a coal like residue.
Other studies in the Plowshare Program will investigate how underground nuclear explosions can make the use of oil shale possible.
Conventional production methods encompass two phases.
1. The Mining
2. The Retorting,
that is the heating to decompose the shale to extract the crude petroleum.
The atomic technique would eliminate the costly mining and above ground retorting.
The nuclear plan is first to fragment the oil shale underground with an atomic explosion and than to heat it to decompose it in place, thousands of feet underground.
The crude oil which strips out from he heated shale would than be pumped to the surface.
This method may at long last permit the great energy locked in oil shale to be useful to man.
The mining industry expects other promising developments made possible by Plowshare.
The unprecedented power of nuclear explosions may fracture hard rock and produce a chimney of rubble or series of such chimneys.
The fractured material may than be recovered by conventional mining techniques.
The ever increasing demand for copper especially in communications brought together two technologies,
the old art of leaching the copper and atomic age underground explosions, all adding up to the creation of a vast new mineral resources.
Leaching is the process of extracting minerals from an ore by dissolving them in a solvent.
Than removing the mineral filled solvent from undissolved materials.
Later the solvent is processed and the minerals are recovered.
As the demand for copper and minerals increases, marginal mineral sources have to be used.
The Plowshare Program is pointing to a way to use marginal sources in its Project Sloop,
being developed in association with the Kennecott Copper Corporation.
The fist step again is the underground explosion in a marginal copper ore body.
The leaching would be performed underground. The ore is not brought to the surface.
The leaching solvent runs through the broken ore, dissolving the copper.
The copper bearing solvent solution gathers at the bottom of the chimney of the fractured rock.
This solution is pumped to the surface where the copper is separated out of the solution.
This nuclear technique may apply to a wide range of mineral resources in the future, but all uses are not industrial.
The placement of these core samples and the installation of this neutron wheel deep underground
demonstrate another scientific facet of underground atomic explosions.
The discovery of new elements and the production of isotopes.
Of course, nuclear reactors of our laboratories produce radioactive materials which find many uses in medicine, industry, agriculture and other areas of science.
Radioactive material tracers are created in a reactor by exposing them to a stream of neutrons over a period of time.
However, during the split second of a underground explosion a tremendously large quantity of neutrons is released instantaneously.
Radioactive target elements placed near the explosion absorb some of this flood of neutrons and are transformed, changed into different heavier elements.
Thus the so called split second reactor with its intense stream of neutrons makes it possible for the nuclear physicists to achieve an age-old dream of alchemists,
transforming one element into another, but while he ancient alchemists attempted to create gold,
today's nuclear alchemist finds it more rewarding to discover new elements, valuable elements and isotopes heavier than any of those known.
Fermium 257, named after Enrico Fermi, was the heaviest metal produced in this way in the United States.
The mass-energy relationship, first stated by Einstein, is very obvious in an underground nuclear explosion.
The mass of the explosive releases energy which shatters tons of rock and causes seismic motions [Earthquakes], that can be registered many miles away.
The explosion creates tremendous heat, which vaporizes the rock in the center of the impact area [Ground Zero].
Because these explosions produce radioactivity, safety precautions and analysis of weather conditions are assured
before underground nuclear explosions are executed, where little damage to structures can occur from ground motion.
In as much as the explosions occur deep down in the Earth, there is no release of radioactivity to the air.
Thousands of feet of rock act as a protective shield.
Constant monitoring detects unlikely radiation leakage through wellbores and instrument pipes or possible pollution of subterranean water.
In another part of the versatile Plowshare Program, nuclear explosions less deep underground [demolition of skyscrapers] are conducted with similar attention to public safety.
Plans are being studied for Geographical Engineering [Geoengineering].
Nuclear explosions for the fast economic creation of mountain passes,
harbors, water management, surface mining and others and even a new sea level canal across Panama.
Experts believe, these ambitious plans will gain reality in the 1970s,
using special explosives and special implacement techniques [chain of smaller Atom Bombs] to minimize radioactivity, reducing and trapping most of it safely underground.
In the meantime, nuclear explosions for the underground engineering are becoming a reality of our industrial life through the magic of the atom.
######## End of the film script #################
For more about fracking, please read following articles:
Earthquake's for fracking gas & petrol by nuclear demolition of deep rocks in Haiti!
Connecting 911 with Fracking by Radioactivity!
Fracking can contaminate rivers and lakes with radioactive material, study finds
Fracking Wastewater Radioactive and Contaminated, Study Finds
Duke Researchers Find Radioactive Contamination in Fracking Wastewater
Fracking can contaminate rivers and lakes with radioactive material, study finds
Dangerous levels of radioactivity found at fracking waste site in Pennsylvania
Radioactivity from oil and gas wastewater persists in Pennsylvania stream sediments: Radioactivity in sediments at three disposal sites measured 650 times higher than normal.