- Food and Physiology!
- Salty, Alkaline and Basic
- MASS DEATH OF OCEANIC FLORA
- Science is lost in the realm of predictions & expectation!
1. Food and Physiology!
Before delving into the non existent "acidification" of the oceans, let us read some basic knowledge about the real carbonic acid and quote from a nice articles!
Carbonic Acid in Beverages
by KIRSTIN HENDRICKSON Last Updated: Oct 11, 2015
"The compound carbonic acid has the chemical formula H2CO3."
"In a sealed container, the carbonic acid tends to act like an acid, breaking into hydrogen and bicarbonate. Once you open a beverage container, however, any hydrogen and bicarbonate in the beverage quickly recombines to form carbonic acid, which then decomposes into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide bubbles up out of the beverage, releasing the gas into the air."
"Bathing the teeth in acid isn't good for your dental enamel, and can lead to cavities. However, carbonic acid isn't particularly acidic compared to many of the other acids you'll find in sodas -- phosphoric acid, for instance -- and isn't implicated in damage to teeth, explains Dr. P. Moynihan in a 2002 article in the "British Dental Journal." This is partly because carbonic acid is relatively weak, and partly because it decomposes so quickly."
Carbonic Acid - Physiology
"In physiology, carbonic acid is described as volatile acid or respiratory acid, because it is the only acid excreted as a gas by the lungs."
Introduction to Acid Base Disorders
"Abnormalities that primarily alter the [HCO3-] are referred to as metabolic acidosis (low [HCO3-]) and metabolic alkalosis (high [HCO3-])."
As we should know that even real carbonic acid is a rare and harmless material, now we may talk about the oceans.
2. Salty, Alkaline and Basic
Oceans are always, SALTY, ALKALINE and BASIC at a degree of ca. 8.4!
Alkaline is not the opposite of ACIDIC, that would be BASIC!
Depending on season and area, the basicity of seawater may change a little bit to 8.3 or 8.2 but it remains basic, alkaline and salty!
Neutrality between basic and acidic is at the degree of 7.0, so before the oceans can become acidic they first need to be less basic and neutral!
The ACIDIFICATION is an invention of the Geoengineering Mafia, to cover its crime of Tropospheric Water Management!
The water harvesting by covering the lower and upper Troposphere with artificial aerosol clouds reduces the sunlight and the ability of ALGAE to conduct photosynthesis, similar to the effect on the mass dying and burning trees.
Less Sunlight leads to mass death of oceanic Flora.
Less algae absorbs less CO2 from water and produce less O2. The CO2 level increases and the O2 level decreases.
Less O2 leads to mass death of oceanic Fauna, all fish and crab need O2 for breathing, so they die in masses!
As the Geoengineering Mafia is intentionally causing this mass death, it has to cover it under the marketing slogan of man made acidification and blame it on the dumb sheeple!
Missing Sunlight leads also to VitaminD deficiency, resulting in many diseases!
Don't You suffer from VitaminD deficiency?
Don't You know people who have to take VitaminD supplements?
Nice days at oceanic shores are gone! You may sue the water thieves for stolen sunlight!
CO2 makes the Ocean More Alkaline
"alkalinity is due to carbonate rocks and CO₂ in the atmosphere. But adding more CO₂ doesn’t make thing more alkaline:
Alkalinity is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with basicity. For example, the pH of a solution can be lowered by the addition of CO₂. This will reduce the basicity; however, the alkalinity will remain unchanged
So there you have it. CO₂ in the atmosphere causes alkalinity and adding CO₂ to a solution will leave the alkalinity unchanged.
“alkaline” is used to mean “basic” or “opposite of acidic”. That isn’t strictly correct; though often the two things, alkalinity and basicity, are ‘fellow travelers’ in chemical reactions, so folks commonly treat them as the same thing. They are not."
An acid is a proton donor (there are a couple of other definitions too, such as based on electron pairs or …) where a base is a proton acceptor. Alkaline does not mean that. It means a specific neutralization point related to carbonate. That difference makes all the difference in the world as it relates to CO₂."
SEAWATER IS GETTING TOO ALKALINE
"Seawater is getting more and more alkaline. Less alkaline doesn’t mean more acidic, and coral bleaching. Unless pH is below 7, is not acidic – the sea will never be acidic; salt is alkaline. ASH, MAGNESIUM, LIME POTASSIUM, SALTS WASHED FROM THE HILLS EVERY YEAR IS ADDING TO THE SEA ALKALINITY!!! Because salt is alkaline -> the Warmist need to take the salt out of the seawater, before start lying that; ‘’the sea water is getting acidic’’!"
"ACIDIFICATION OF THE SEA, IS A BIG LIE / CON
For the world to know: water in rivers and in the sea; if pH is neutral – would be the most harmful for the living critters. Reason is: acidity in rivers / alkalinity in the sea purifies the water. Otherwise bacteria / viruses multiply a lot in pH7 and would decimate the living critters that we like. As an experiment: leave some rainwater in a large dish; you will see the colour of it, after a month. Rainwater is pH7 = neutral. Therefore; I hate to say that: everybody is wrong… but me…"
Carbon Dioxide Makes Alkaline Water - Experiment
"If you read the statements of carbon dioxide “war mongers”, including those from EPA, you are led to believe that CO2 causes acidification of water. That is true under aseptic conditions such as in a laboratory with distilled water, but not in nature. In nature, there are two crucial differences: the presence of nutrients and sun light. Together, they make a big difference as you will see for yourself by undertaking this simple experiment."
"Contrary to what many people claim about the “acidification effect” of carbon dioxide, nature quickly turns it around and uses CO2 to produce organic matter that makes the water alkaline. The increase in pH was obtained from the conversion of an acidic solution of carbon dioxide and the nutrients with the help of the sun’s energy via the photosynthesis process to alkaline water. You demonstrated it yourself."
Water, Alkalinity & PH
"Alkalinity is important because it protects or buffers against rapid pH changes."
"pH simply expresses the degree of hydrogen ion concentration.
Alkaline means that the pH is greater than 7. Alkalinity is the
true measure of acid-neutralizing capacity which includes the
bicarbonate (HCO3-1), carbonate (CO3-2) and hydroxide
(OH-1) ions. It is measured in mg/l or ppm as CaCO3."
"As we can see in the below graph the higher the CO2 the more alkaline the water at a given pH."
"The table below (from “Chemical Oceanography” by Frank Millero; 1996) shows the contribution to alkalinity from the major contributors in seawater at pH 8."
"Chemical Species Relative Contribution To Alkalinity
HCO3– (bicarbonate) 89.8
CO3– (carbonate) 6.7
B(OH)4– (borate) 2.9
SiO(OH)3– (silicate) 0.2
MgOH+ (magnesium monohydroxylate) 0.1
OH– (hydroxide) 0.1
HPO4– and PO4– (phosphate) 0.1
"Carbon dioxide has a specific solubility in water as carbonic acid (H2CO3)."
"At any given pH there is an exact mathematical relationship between H2CO3 and both bicarbonate and carbonate. For example, at a pH of about 9.3 in freshwater (about 8.4 in seawater) the carbonate concentration is 100 times that of the carbonic acid."
"At higher pH this multiplier rises, and there is consequently more bicarbonate and carbonate present."
"Alkalinity rises sharply as pH is raised. This becomes especially true above pH 8 in salt water, where there becomes an appreciable concentration of carbonate."
"The theoretical relationship between carbonate alkalinity and pH for seawater (blue) and freshwater (red) equilibrated with the atmosphere (350 ppm carbon dioxide)."
"Normal to high alkalinity implies adequate bicarbonate, while low alkalinity implies that it is in short supply."
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for pH Neutralization
"CO2 is it self not an acid. CO2 forms carbonic acid (H2CO3) when dissolved in water; and it is carbonic acid that leads to the neutralization of alkalinity in solution.
"The most appealing feature of CO2 is that it will not lower the pH of water below 7.0 (for practical purposes). Additionally CO2 is not corrosive as a gas, however, since CO2 is heavier than air asphyxiation is always a hazard."
3. MASS DEATH OF OCEANIC FLORA
Heartbreaking Photos Of Thousands Of Dead Fish Highlight Mass Devastation At Indian River Lagoon
“IT’S MASS DEVASTATION; IT’S ON A SCALE THAT I’VE NOT SEEN BEFORE.”
USA, New York:
Officials: Thousands of dead bunker fish wash ashore on LI
USA, New Jersey:
Thousands of dead fish wash up on shore in Keansburg
Million dead fish wash up in New Jersey: low oxygen levels blamed
Vietnam: Dead fish sought after following mass fish death recurs in central Vietnam
Masses of dead fish wash up near Tianjin blast site
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro:
Brazil removes 50 tons of dead fish from Olympic waters
Mass Fish Deaths: Millions Have Been Found Dead All Over The World In The Past Month
"The death of approximately 35,000 fish up in Minnesota is being blamed on a “lack of oxygen“.
"The recent die off of thousands of fish in the Shark River near Belmar, New Jersey is also being blamed on “oxygen depletion“.
"Officials in Menifee, California are still trying to figure out what caused the death of thousands of fish in Menifee Lake a few weeks ago…
"Authorities continued testing the water in Menifee Lake Friday after thousands of dead fish have been seen floating since last weekend.
"In the Gulf of Mexico, dolphins and sea turtles are dying “in record numbers“.
"Maryland officials are still puzzled by the death of 7,000 Atlantic menhaden last month…
"17th May 2014 – Masses of fish turn up dead in a marina in Pultneyville, New York, America. Link"
"16th May 2014 – Mass die off of fish in a river in Aragatsotn, Armenia. Link
"15th May 2014 – Hundreds of fish dying off ‘due to pollution’ in the wetlands of Rewalsar, India. Link
Mass Animal Deaths for 2016
"MASS ANIMAL DEATH LIST 401 Known MASS Death Events in 71 Countries (or Territory)
2nd September 2016 - Thousands of dead fish wash up in a harbor in Mississippi, America. Link
31st August 2016 - Masses of dead anchovy wash up on the coast of Chanaral, Chile. Link
31st August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish wash up 'causing shock' on a lake in Alberta, Canada. Link
30th August 2016 - 100 TONS of fish have died suddenly in Lake Maninjau, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Link
30th August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish found is 'unprecedented' in a lake in Sverdlovsk, Russia. Link
30th August 2016 - Massive die off of fish in fish farms in Boyolali, Indonesia. Link
29th August 2016 - Large die off of fish, 'a mystery' in a lake in Cordoba, Argentina. Link
29th August 2016 - 322 Reindeer found dead, 'probably killed by lightning' in Hardangervidda,Norway. Link
29th August 2016 - Tens of thousands of fish die in a river in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Vietnam. Link
29th August 2016 - Mass die off of fish 'due to pollution' in the River Seyhan, Turkey. Link
28th August 2016 - 11,500 chickens killed due to avian flu in Lome, Togo. Link
28th August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish wash up in Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, America. Link
28th August 2016 - Fish kill found along the shores of Kuwait Bay, Kuwait. Link
27th August 2016 - 20,000 dead fish wash up in Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, America. Link
27th August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish turn up in the waters of Matamoros, Mexico. Link
27th August 2016 - Hundreds of thousands of dead mussels wash up on a beach in Jamesport, New York, America. Link
27th August 2016 - 11,000 fish found dead in Huntington, New York, America. Link
27th August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish wash up in Portland Harbor, Oregon, America. Link
26th August 2016 - Large amount of dead fish found floating on a river in Sena Madureira, Brazil. Link
25th August 2016 - Hundreds of TONS of fish 'suddenly die' in a reservoir in Sragen, Indonesia. Link
25th August 2016 - 1 Million+ dead fish wash up in New Jersey, America. Link
24th August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish found floating in the waters of Asten, Netherlands. Link
24th August 2016 - Large amount of dead fish, lobsters and crabs found in the waters of Fortaleza, Brazil. Link
23rd August 2016 - 18,000+ cattle die due to 'cold temperatures' in Arequipa, Peru. Link
22nd August 2016 - Thousands of dead fish found in a river in North Carolina, America. Link
22nd August 2016 - 150,000 lbs of fish turn up dead in a lake in Qingdao, China. Link
"See MASS ANIMAL DEATHS 2015 for the 2015 list.
See MASS ANIMAL DEATHS 2014 for the 2014 list.
See MASS ANIMAL DEATHS 2013 for the 2013 list.
See MASS ANIMAL DEATHS 2012 for the 2012 list.
See MASS ANIMAL DEATHS 2011 for the 2011 list."
Hundreds of Japanese horseshoe crabs wash up dead on beaches
80,000 reindeer have starved to death as Arctic sea ice retreats
https://www.newscientist.com/article/2112958-80000-reindeer-have-starved-to-death-as-arctic-sea-ice-retreats/ The starve because the grass doesn't grow enough under blocked sunlight!
This one is propaganda, but it cannot hide the mass death in the oceans and seas.
Colossal Pacific Salmon Run Reduced to Rubble — Climate Change To Blame Say Scientists http://www.environews.tv/100416-colossal-pacific-salmon-run-demolished-climate-change-say-scientists/
Are the mysterious mass die-offs in the Pacific ocean going stop, or are all the sea creatures just going to eventually go extinct?
"There is currently something going wrong along the American Pacific coast. Almost every day, an catastrophic animal die-off is being reported… But nobody knows why.
Here is an abbreviated list of creatures who have experienced mass die-off events since 2011.
1) Sea Stars 2) Bluefin tuna 3) Sardine, Anchovy, Herring4) Sea Lions 5) marine birds 6) red King Crab 7) Pelicans 8) Pacific Oysters 9) Sockeye Salmon 1 0) Herring 11) plankton
12) Anchovies (again) 13) Whales 14) Tuna and Albacore
15) Most recently Tuna Crabs."
All Of A Sudden, Fish Are Dying By The MILLIONS All Over The Planet
Oceans on the Brink: Dying Plankton, Dead Zones, Acidification
“It is frightening to realise we have lost nearly half of the oceans’ green plants,”
"Another related mega-change in the oceans is the dramatic increase in number and size of dead zones – areas too low in oxygen to support life. Fertiliser and sewage run-off cause huge growth of plankton, which then quickly die and are consumed by bacteria that deplete waters of oxygen. The Gulf of Mexico has a 22,000 square kilometre dead zone every spring due to run-off from the Mississippi River."
“Like the plot of a summer horror flick”: All along Canada’s Pacific coast, mussels are dying http://blackbarth.com/like-the-plot-of-a-summer-horror-flick-all-along-canadas-pacific-coast-mussels-are-dying/
"For all its harrowing, terrifying damage, the saving grace of cancer has always been that it dies with its host. Its destructive power comes from turning victims’ own cells against them and making them run amok."
Mass fish die-off reported at Kvaenes beach, Norway
No Ocean, No Us: 3 Reasons We Should Care About the State of Our Oceans
4. Science is lost in the realm of predictions & expectation!
Now let us look at a "scientific study" which is framed to "research" the impact of "acidification" by "global warming" but disproves the claims by facts. Consider that the notion of "acidification" is used many times in the study, mixing acidic with alkaline. The measured PH values are not at natural levels, but far basic and never acidic. Natural level varies between depending on season and area 8.4 to 8.2. The experiment begins at about 8.07 decreasing to 7.81, based on the speculation that this would be the level at the end of this century as "predicted" and"previously expected".
With "acidification" these fake scientists only mean increase of CO2 concentration in water! Either they don't consider that putting too much CO2 into the water of the animals would reduce the ability to breathe enough O2, which is suffocation to death!
Coral Energy Reserves and Calcification in a High-CO2 World at Two Temperatures
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10): e75049. Published online 2013 Oct 11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075049 PMCID: PMC3795744
Verena Schoepf,1,* Andréa G. Grottoli,1 Mark E. Warner,2 Wei-Jun Cai,3,¤a Todd F. Melman,4 Kenneth D. Hoadley,2 D. Tye Pettay,2 Xinping Hu,3,¤b Qian Li,3,¤c Hui Xu,3,¤d Yongchen Wang,3 Yohei Matsui,1 and Justin H. Baumann1 Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Editor
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►
"Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios."
"Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected."
"Finally, the algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium sp.) provides healthy corals with up to 100% of their daily metabolic energy demand via photosynthesis . If algal productivity is enhanced under OA due to CO2 fertilization , this might help maintain calcification rates and/or energy reserves under OA as energetic costs for calcification increase. Further, Symbiodinium sp. exhibit high sensitivity to elevated seawater temperature . Thus, it is important to monitor endosymbiont and chlorophyll a concentrations in studies manipulating both pCO2 and temperature."
"Here, we studied the single and interactive effects of pCO2 (382, 607, 741 µatm) and temperature (26.5 and 29.0°C) on coral calcification, energy reserves (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate), chlorophyll a, and endosymbiont concentrations in 4 species of Pacific coral with different growth morphologies. It was hypothesized that
1) calcification and energy reserves decrease in response to elevated pCO2 and elevated temperature,
2) decreases are larger when pCO2 and temperature are elevated simultaneously, and
3) that physiological responses are species-specific.
"All corals appeared healthy throughout the experiment. No visible paling and no mortality occurred. The average seawater temperature, pHT, pCO2, saturation state, and total alkalinity for all six treatments are summarized in Table 1."
"The chlorophyll a concentrations of A. millepora were significantly affected by pCO2 (pFig. 3a, Table S2). Endosymbiont densities were not affected by either seawater temperature (p = 0.07) or pCO2 (p = 0.03 but overall model p = 0.24) (Fig. 3b, Table S2) ."
"Coral calcification has been predicted to decrease dramatically by the end of this century, thus threatening the existence of coral reefs in the future. Although the response of coral calcification is not uniform across species, most studies have found that calcification decreases with increasing seawater pCO2 –. Here, we show that only one of the four Pacific coral species studied here decreased calcification in response to average ocean acidification levels expected by the second half of this century (741 µatm), even when combined with elevated temperature (+2.5°C). Further, we investigated for the first time the effects of OA on coral energy reserves and show that they were largely not metabolized in order to sustain calcification under elevated pCO2 and temperature."
"Acropora millepora was the only coral out of the four species studied here that decreased calcification rates in response to OA (Fig. 2b). While calcification rates were not affected by elevated pCO2 and/or temperature during the first half of the experiment, they declined by 53% during the second half of the experiment due to acidification alone."
"Although pH up-regulation has not been studied in P. damicornis, M. monasteriata, or T. reniformis, it can be hypothesized that they have stronger control over the pH at the site of calcification and were therefore able to maintain calcification under the pCO2 levels studied here."