- Metamorphosis of Corporatism/Fascism, Imperialism, Colonialism!
- Globalization is the new Colonialism!
- North Africa and Arabia
- India and Indochina
- Let us learn something about fracking!
- Further Sources
- Libya, Tunisia: Regime change for fracking!
- New Zealand, Mozambique, Iran
- Mexico and USA!
- Spain, Canary Islands
Thursday, 2. April 2015
For Mrs. Eigendorf they are "the fighters of voluntary militia are the new heroes." Murder as "order and security"."
Montag, 8. September 2014
- Global water is colonialized!
- Global sunlight is colonialized!
- Global oxygen is colonialized!
- Global air is colonized!
- Global weather is colonized!
- Global soil is colonialized!
- Global oceans are colonized!
- Global food is colonialized!
- Global mind is colonized!
- Global faiths are colonized!
- Global knowledge is colonized!
- Global health is colonialized!
- Global forests are colonized!
- Global life is colonialized!
- Global energy is colonized!
All that is globalized by global engineering, also called geoengineering, terraforming, climate engineering or just "Solar Radiation Management" (SRM)!
April 6, 2013 by Manzoor Roome
by Justin Calderon -Jun 11, 2013
This video shows a nice drilling animation and doesn't show about the fracturing of the rock formation by nuclear demolitions!
This advertisement video only shows small gun shots to open holes into the rock. It doesn't show how all gas and oil could be produced without heavy fracturing of the rock formation.
What is fracking?
"Fracking is short for hydraulic fracturing. It’s a method of extracting natural gas and oil from shale deposits deep within the earth. Water, chemicals, and sand are pumped into these shale deposits under very high pressure which causes the shale to fracture, releasing the natural gas and oil trapped within. The slurry of water, chemicals, gas, and oil are then slowly pumped back out, leaving the sand to hold the fractures open so the mixture can be removed. As the slurry of chemicals, water, sand, gas and oil is pumped back out of the ground, it is separated into its different components and stored in tanks.
And it’s the removal process where the problems lie for our groundwater. It’s been estimated that anywhere between 20 and 40 percent of the chemicals are left behind. They can then seep into the groundwater, contaminating wells and rendering the water undrinkable. "
"Benzene is one of the chemical components of the chemical cocktail pumped into the ground. It’s a byproduct of petroleum production and a Class A carcinogen. Benzene exposure has long been known to cause various forms of leukemia. Benzene exposure to eyes or skin can cause irritation. Drinking benzene in you water causes stomach irritation, vomiting, convulsions, rapid heartbeat and even death."
How do offshore drilling platforms move from place to place?
They are as wide as entire football fields, stand at least 10 to 20 stories tall, and weigh many tons. How do they move around without sinking to the bottom of the ocean?
"Most offshore drilling vessels/platforms are designed to be moved from location to location. The majority of exploratory wells drilled are failures, so it would not make sense to build a permanent structure at the start of a drilling campaign. We use a variety of styles of temporary/mobile structures to drill exploratory wells (and often to drill the development wells, too). These are called Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs)."
May 8, 2014
"WHERE TO DRILL
The Geology of the GoM is largely Jurassic and Cretaceous, when the basin encouraged collection and evaporation of sea water, leaving behind accumulations of Salt and Gypsum, which then domed and trapped abundant hydrocarbons."
"HOW ARE LEASES STRUCTURED?
The Submerged Lands Act (SLA) of 1953 grants individual States rights to the natural resources of submerged lands from the coastline to no more than 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) into the Atlantic, Pacific, the Arctic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. The only exceptions are Texas and the west coast of Florida, where State jurisdiction extends from the coastline to no more than 3 marine leagues (16.2 km) into the Gulf of Mexico."
"State and federal ownership of the seabed:"
"Beyond the state boundaries in the GoM there are Offshore Protraction Areas that are further subdivided into blocks that go up for bid from the federal government."
"According to the following BOEM chart, most of the big money bids were in the 70s and 80s, but sale number 222 in 2012 netted $157 million for lease G34456 in the central district!"
"WHAT TYPES OF RIGS ARE THERE?
There are three primary rig types. Jackups, semisubmersibles and drillships make up the majority of the offshore rig fleet and all are used worldwide. Other rig types such as platform rigs, inland barges and tender-assisted rigs are used as well, but they are fewer in number and are generally used in specific geographic areas. Jack-ups – Used for shallow water drilling, there are two jackup types; independent-leg jackups make up the majority of the existing fleet. They have legs that penetrate into the seafloor and the hull jacks up and down the legs. Mat-supported jackups are presently used only in the U.S. GoM. As the name implies, the mat rests on the seafloor during drilling operations. Cantilever jackups are able to skid out over the platform or well location, while slot units have a slot that fits around a platform when drilling development wells.
Semisubmersibles – Used for deepwater drilling, these floating rigs have columns that are ballasted to remain on location either by mooring lines anchored to the seafloor or by dynamic positioning systems. They are used for both exploratory and development drilling.
Drillships – Also used for deepwater drilling, these ship-shaped floating rigs move from location to location under their own power. They are capable of operating in more remote locations and require fewer supply boat trips than do semis. They are maintained on location via dynamic positioning systems, and most of the rigs currently under construction are drillships. Platform Rigs – These are self-contained rigs that are placed on fixed platforms for field development drilling. Some are called self-erecting and can be rigged up in as little as a few days. Other larger units require a derrick barge to be installed and can take up to two weeks to be rigged up. Once drilling is completed, the rig is removed from the platform. Tender-Assist Rigs – There are only about 25 of these rigs left in existence, used mostly in West Africa and Southeast Asia. They are monohull units that are moored next to a platform. The rig is then installed onto the platform, while all the power, storage and other functions remain on the tender. Inland Barges – These rigs are specially adapted for inland waters close to shore. They are used in the GoM as well as other areas of the world."WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF AN OFFSHORE RIG?"
"This image shows some of the major components of an offshore semisubmersible rig:"
- Hull – initially rigs were built out of tanker hulls, so the terminology remains
- Power Module – converts available fuel into power for the station
- Process Module – onboarding and offloading of supplies and products
- Drilling Module – the traditional drilling rig apparatus
- Quarters Module – where the crew sleeps and eats
- Wellbay Module – access to the well and other equipment
- Derrick – the oil derrick"
"In oil-producing operations, it is often desirable to inject water or steam into the formation to improve oil recovery. Water injection for this purpose is called a waterflood; when properly implemented, it will maintain reservoir pressure and significantly improve the oil recovery vs. primary production. Steam injection, known as a steamflood, will reduce the viscosity of oil and further enhance the oil recovery. See the chapter on Steam Injection in the Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics volume of this Handbook."
"In offshore areas, governing regulations specify the maximum hydrocarbon and solids content in the water allowed in overboard discharges. Some studies have estimated that during the life of a well, 4 to 5 bbl of water are produced for every barrel of oil, making this fluid the largest volume of produced product in the oil and gas industry."
"Separating Free Hydrocarbons From Water
Produced water typically enters the water-treatment system from a two- or three-phase separator, free-water knockout, gun barrel, heater treater, or other primary-separation-unit process. This water contains small concentrations (100 to 2000 mg/L) of dispersed hydrocarbons in the form of oil droplets. Because the water flows from this equipment through dump valves, control valves, chokes, or pumps, the oil-particle diameters will be very small (< 100 μm)."
Flow Measurement of Produced Water or Sea Water during Injection
"Water injection is a common way to extend reservoir life through intelligent well management. In order to raise the reservoir pressure and improve the production rate, sea water or produced water is injected into the well. The injected water quantities are monitored by flow meters and transmitted to the process control system."
"The sea water injection takes place in two steps. Firstly the booster pumps suck the water out of the reservoir's water tank to create a slight admission pressure of approximately 200 psi. The injection pumps need this pressure in order to work cavitation free. Secondly the injection happens via thick walled steel pipes, where pressures of about 4500 psi can be reached during the process."
Concentration Measurement of Glycol for Gas Dehydration
"A natural gas exploration company in the middle east extracts gas offshore, which is then piped onshore where it is prepared for transportation and further processing."
"As the natural gas is extracted from the wellhead, it expands and thus its temperature strongly drops. In order to prevent the formation of ice and avoid frozen fittings, it must be heated. For this purpose, an 80% monoethylene glycol mixture (MEG) is warmed up to 285 °F onshore and then pumped out to the gas extraction fields offshore. Here it is mixed into the extracted gas streams to elevate the temperature and to simultaneously dehydrate the gas."
"The MEG and the natural gas are then piped back, as a mixture, towards the mainland. Onshore, the MEG is regenerated and stored in a reservoir tank. It is then ready to be fed back into the cycle."
Injection (Chemical / Gas / Water)
"Challenge: Certain chemicals may need to be injected into oil or gas wells to counteract such conditions as scaling, hydrate formation, and corrosion. Traditionally, the injection dosages to individual wells have been controlled through valves located on the topside facilities. However, this requires a separate chemical feed line for each well – all the way from the chemical supply tank on the platform, through the control valve and the umbilical to the subsea well. In other words, the distribution of chemicals to each well is performed on the surface. For a subsea field development, the larger the number of trees and the longer the step-out from the host platform result in additional costs for each separate stainless steel tube bundled in the subsea umbilical."
Report: Fracking took 5.3 million gallons of water per well last year
"Hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive business: Bursting open just one shale gas well can require pumping millions of gallons of water underground.
Yet much of the United States' fracking activity takes place in areas that are suffering from high or extremely high water stress, according to Ceres, an advocacy group for sustainable investment.
About 57 percent of the nearly 110,000 wells that were hydraulically fractured in the last five years are in these highly stressed regions, including basins in Texas, Colorado, Oklahoma and California, Ceres found in an interactive map and report published Thursday."
The Fracking Map of CERES.
Fracking: Impacts - Water
"Development of shale energy resources requires a large amount of water, with estimates ranging between two to nine million gallons per well. However, there is a lack of clarity about how much water is used to frack in California."
An Investor Guide to Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Stress
Fracking-Flüssigkeiten (Fracking fluids)!
Gas in, gas out: the waterless fracking alternative
Drought raises appeal of using natural gas instead of water to fracture rock in wells
Trinkwasserschutz (drink water protection)
"Wasser ist lebenswichtig. Für ExxonMobil gilt deshalb: Trinkwasserschutz geht vor Energiegewinnung und hat bei der Erdgasförderung oberste Priorität – unabhängig davon, ob das Fracking-Verfahren eingesetzt wird oder nicht."
Betreibt Exxonmobil Im Jahr 2030 ca 1000 Erdöl-und
Erdgasbohrungen in Deutschland und hat bis dahin für die
durchgeführten Fracks etwa 150 verschiedene Chemikalien eingesetzt?
HeatWave RF Heating ESEIEH process
3 Solutions To Water-Intensive Fracking
"Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Fracturing"
"Channel Fracturing Technology"
Colonializm by mass destruction of ranking!
What is "carbon efficient"?
Are You carbon efficient?
Can You live with less breathing and eating?
Can You live without carbon?
Why don't they ask for reduction of real poisons like mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminium, uranium is phosphate fertilizers, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, acetone, MEK, toluene, benzene, xylene, polychlorinatedbiphenyl ethers, alcohols. trihalomethanes, phenols, pesticides / insecticides / herbicides, detergents, organo-metalic compounds, sulfides, ammonia, perchlorate?
Why do they attack the molecule of life, CO2?
Find all answers about CO2 in the following article!
Frequently asked questions about CO2!
Accelerating Returns From The Transition To A Low Carbon Economy
"The only public Carbon Ranking of the world’s largest listed companies. The Rankings highlight carbon efficient companies, and those who report on both direct and supply chain emissions."
How deep to frack?
Just to expose some people as liars or bad informed, who claim to know that fracking occurs only up to 2km depth!
WHAT IS DEEP WATER FRACKING? (DEEP OFFSHORE DRILLING)
"Where once drilling was confined to water not much more than a thousand feet deep, in recent years this has risen to almost 10,000 feet (about 2 miles) of water. Now a major push is under way to start drilling in waters deeper than 10,000 feet."
Shale Gas and Fracking in Europe
"Shale gas is methane gas contained in rocks called shales. It is typically found in underground layers anything from a few meters to tens of meters thick and at maximum depths of 6 to 7 kilometres. Worldwide technically recoverable shale gas reserves are sizeable
and estimated to be ~200 trillion cubic metres (tcm), of which ~16 tcm are located in Europe."
"In areas in the USA where strict water treatment policies are not in force, these
fluids are often disposed of partially treated in deep underground wells (disposal wells) at depths of approximately 4 to 5 km."
Maximum depth of IGas shale well at Tinker Lane cut by almost half
BY RUTH HAYHURST ON AUGUST 25, 2016
"But the planning application for the site near Barnby Moor, currently being considered by Nottinghamshire County Council, said the well would be a maximum of 3,300m deep."
DUBAI, November 29, 2015
06/14/15 Source: Press TV
17 May 2017 08:43 (UTC+04:00)
Turkey, the West and Russia are competing on huge gas reserves in the Near East.
Wednesday, February 13, 2013
UPSTREAM - DOWNHOLE AND WELLS
May 8, 2014
By Sarantis Michalopoulos | EURACTIV.com 13. Juli 2017 (updated: 14. Juli 2017)
By Drilling Info - Apr 20, 2017, 3:00 PM
B. Z. AUGUST 10, 2016
- South Akcakoca Sub-Basin: offshore gas play (36.75% WI); substantial untapped contingent and discovered resources
- Cendere: onshore oil play (19.6% WI); long life – estimated 10+ years remaining
- Bakuk: onshore gas play (50% WI); operated by one of our new subsidiaries
"SASB UNDEVELOPED DISCOVERIES AND PROSPECTS
- South Akcakoca
- West Eskikale
The greatest debate surrounding the Leviathan and Aphrodite discoveries is how to transport the oil and gas to market. There seem to be four possibilities on the table: a pipeline to Turkey; a pipeline to Greece; a liquefaction plant in Cyprus; and a floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) vessel."
By Subhash Vohra, VOA, Washington, 06/18/08
Colin Stabler1 , Michele Bishop2 , and Edwin Moritz2 Search and Discovery Article #10743 (2015)** Initially Posted June 29, 2015; final posting August 10, 2015
June 2015, Information updated for PwC's Presentation – Breakfast Briefing with Canadian companies
September 29, 2014
Wallmap | Apr 2017
Wallmap | Apr 2017
Updated March 25, 2015
By Ron Patterson - Sep 05, 2016, 1:02 PM CDT
Press Release, July 11, 2012
Wednesday, July 11, 2012 - 11:21am
Published 17 June 2018
Hannah Kearns, Jake Berryman, Neil Hodgson and Karyna Rodriguez, Spectrum
Peace is bringing hope, seismic exploration and evidence of exciting hydrocarbon-bearing structures offshore Somalia.
This article appeared in Vol. 13, No. 2 - 2016
The 'fracking rate' collides with the fall in oil and only collects 2 million
by Carlos Sánchez, 12/01/2015
By Morocco World News - Jan 31, 2018
August 14, 2014