Saudi water pipelines (thousands of kilometers) & dams (at least 230) & CO2 gasification!

CONTENT

  1. Entry
  2. High per capita water consumption!
  3. Many water pipelines!
  4. Some current dam images!
  5. Water, Energy, CO2 gasification!
  6. More about water in Arabia




1. Entry

Looking at the torrential and deadly rain and hail, it should be expected that Saudi Arabia would use these big amounts of water economically, instead of relying only to generate sweet water from the sea by legacy desalination methods.

God is not to blame for this carnage. The tropospheric water thieves should compensate the poor shepherd.

Look at this "paradise" of dams and agriculture.

"From the effect of northern Dalaimiya hail on Wednesday 12 Sha'aban 1440 may God compensate her good Shepherd Photographed by al-Siddiq Abu Saad"



"Seoul is being stripped east of Khamis Mushayt now by member Mohammed al-Bijadi"

If you would like to see more of that, please look here and here.

Rather the "desalination" serves as a cover and apology story to hide the real big thing of water supply by measures of Climate Geoengineering (ClimateControl).

This water needs to be stored in dams, underground aquifers, on-ground tanks, and transported by water pipelines to the huge industrial areas of fracking of oil and gas and desert farming, which have rapidly grown since the 1990s and can easily be observed by satellite maps.

The connection of this development with the wars in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya and Somalia and with Petrodollar of the USA and the peaceful way out of the current carnage by renting wind-water corridors need to be read in the linked articles on this paragraph.

But let the Saudis speak for themselves and tell us the extend of water infrastructure, adapted to ClimateControl. Please research much more sources about that by yourself. I am giving only a few examples here, not to make unproven claims.

The following website about the dams and reservoirs has been deleted.

Profile of Saudi Arabia
http://www.saudinf.com/main/f44.htm

"Dam and Reservoir Projects

In order to exploit rain and flood waters as efficiently as possible, the Ministry has concentrated on building several dams in different areas. Before 1975 (1395 AH), there were 16 dams; the number had increased to 230 by end of 2006 (1426/27 AH), with a storage capacity of 850.33 million cubic meters. These dams contribute to the increase of subterranean water reserves and the provision of potable water, as well as helping to protect plantations and some villages against the flooding which previously threatened them as a result of sudden torrential rises in the level of water.

Among the major dams in the Kingdom is the dam of Wadi Najran with a storage capacity of 85 million cubic meters, the dam of Wadi Jizan with a storage capacity of 75 million cubic meters, the dam of Wadi Fatima on the outskirts of the Holy City of Makkah with a storage capacity of 20 million cubic meters, and the Wadi Bisha dam, the largest dam in the Kingdom and the second largest concrete dam in the Middle East."


2. High per capita water and electricity consumption!

Yes, Arabia would have "very little rain", if there was not the endless heavy supply of rain clouds by application of climate control!

KSA water consumption rate twice the world average
Updated 06 March 2014

"The production of desalinated water uses up to eight times more energy than using groundwater and accounts for up to 20 percent of the energy consumption in Saudi Arabia, Baig explained. In addition, there are great environmental challenges associated with the whole process.

He said: “Water is vital to life and Saudi Arabia attaches great importance to its water resources. Even then, it faces severe arid conditions, scanty rainfalls and continuous influx of overseas workers and rising population per annum.

“The Kingdom receives very little rain, has no permanent rivers or lakes and has limited groundwater reservoirs, which are depleting at an alarming rate. In such a situation, it seems imperative to come up with the best water conservation measures and methods.”
"

The share of 63% for the desalinated water, which is comparably confirmed in other reports, is only for the availability of "municipal use". That means, the huge amounts for large scale industrial agriculture and nuclear fracking of oil, gas and condensates is not within this calculation.

Percentage of desalinated water from the total fresh water available for municipal use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the years (2010-2018)
https://www.stats.gov.sa/ar/6678 (m³/day)

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
1.258 1.476 1.546 1.594 1.685 1.835 1.947 2.175 2.137
2.283 2.423 2.527 2.731 2.874 3.025 3.129 3.150 3.392
55% 61% 61% 58% 59% 61% 62% 69% 63%

That would be 3.392 m³ * 1,000 = 3,392 million Liter / 33 Million people = 102.79 Liter per Capita fresh water and 64.77 Liter desalinated water! The remaining at least 200 Liter must come from precipitation.

Per Capita Water Consumption In Saudi Regions During The Period 2009-2017
Region Year
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Riyadh 289 292 292 285 293 304 337 353 357
Makkah 189 214 237 241 246 248 237 233 240
Madinah 229 232 219 220 235 231 231 242 258
Al-Qassim 295 263 252 245 243 241 258 244 124
Eastern Region 380 344 370 374 377 374 364 378 381
Asir 78 83 85 89 98 99 104 127 125
Tabuk 192 199 174 168 283 299 211 220 158
Hail 137 136 110 105 130 170 220 224 228
Northern Borders 108 143 136 202 170 162 164 181 224
Jazan 36 35 31 57 66 76 136 108 102
Najran 56 54 47 45 114 88 108 116 105
Al-Bahah 57 60 61 80 102 153 232 254 189
Al-Jouf 225 239 240 246 228 225 222 242 149
Kingdomwide average 227 231 235 238 249 253 263 270 265
 

MAKING WATER - Desalination: option or distraction for a thirsty world?
June 2007, This report was prepared for WWF’s Global Freshwater Programme by Phil Dickie (www.melaleucamedia.com) 
https://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/making_water_desalination_report.pdf

"Saudi Arabia – struggling to keep up with demand The Saudi Government owned Saline Water Conversion Company (SWCC) is the world's largest desalination enterprise with 30 plants producing more than 3 million m³/day and 5000 mW of power50 percent of the kingdom's water needs and 20 percent of its power needs. Over the next 20 years, according to SWCC, the kingdom will need an additional 6 million m³/day of water and 30,000 more mW of power generating capacity."

Water in Saudi Arabia: Desalination, Wastewater, and Privatization
January 7, 2021 Featured Articles
https://ussaudi.org/water-in-saudi-arabia-desalination-wastewater-and-privatization/

"Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world without running surface water and has one of the highest rates of water consumption in the world. Providing new sources of potable water for the Kingdom’s growing population and expanding industry has long been a matter of national importance to the desert country. With daily water consumption at 263 liters per capita (in 2019), total water consumption has exceeded 8 million cubic meters per day (m3/d) and is forecast to reach 12.3 million m3/d by 2040. The country has relied on desalinated water since the 1950s and has since come to be the leading desalinated water producer in the world, with 7.6 million m3 produced daily accounting for 22 percent of global production. As of 2019, 60 percent of the country’s water comes from desalination, with nonrenewable groundwater (less than 40 percent) taking most of the remaining share and reclaimed wastewater surface water and surface water supplies supplying the rest. The Kingdom’s overall water demand stands at an estimated 25.29 billion m3 annually but is projected to grow slightly to 25.79 billion m3 by 2025.

Although the Saudi government has ensured that more than 97 percent of its population has reliable access to potable water, the challenge of increased consumption and decreased supply has remained a priority of the Kingdom’s development goals. As of October 2020, the Kingdom had a total of 33 desalination plants in 17 locations run by the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), a government-run organization responsible for approximately 69 percent of desalination in the Kingdom (5.6 million m3/d) and 20 percent of worldwide desalination.
"


25,790,000,000,000 Liter total / 33,000,000 population
= 781515.15 per capita, per year total demand.

781515.15 / 365 
2141.137 Liter per capita, per day total demand.

5,600,000,000 Liter desalinated water per day total / 33,000,000 population
= 169.697 Liter desalinated water per capita, per day

(169.697 * 100) / 2141.137 = 7.93 % share of desalinated water of all water demand!


According to the following data, the share of desalinated water far below 1%!

4.8 Million m³ per day equals 4.800,000,000 Liters.
Population of Saudi Arabia is about 33 Million.
So the liters per capita per day would be ...
4.800,000,000 / 33.000000 = 145.45 Liters per capita per day.

Having a total per capita per day consumption of 265 Liters, the share of desalinated water would be about 54.89%, but only for MUNICIPAL USE, without the much bigger consumption of Fracking, Desert Farming and other industries!

Saudi Arabia expands water desalination production capacity
March 21, 2017 at 10:10 pm

"Saudi Arabia has increased its daily production of desalinated water to 4.2 million cubic metres up from 3.8 million cubic metres, the state-owned Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) announced."

"The kingdom's demand on drinking water grows by 8.8 per cent annually, according to official statistics. It leads the world in the consumption of desalinated water.

Saudi Arabia suffers a full dependence on desalinated water for drinking purposes, which has led to a notable hike in the desalinated water price per litre, exceeding the gasoline litre price in the domestic market.

The kingdom consumes about eight million cubic metres of water a day with a daily consumption of 265 litres per capita, which is double the individual daily consumption in the European Union.
"

Saudi Arabia launches program for a drastic reduction in water use
Through the program, the ministry aims to reduce daily per capita consumption from 263 liters to 200 liters by 2020 and to 150 liters by 2030.

Mar 21st, 2019

"Saudi Arabia, which has a population of about 33.4 million, is the world’s third largest per capita consumer of water after the United States (pop. 324.5 million approx.) and Canada (pop. 37.2 million), according to the Qatrah website. Through the Qatrah program, the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture aims to reduce daily per capita consumption from 263 liters to 200 liters by 2020 and to 150 liters by 2030."

"Water security is a key challenge facing Saudi Arabia and has already led to the Kingdom emerging as the world’s largest producer of desalinated water. According to the Global Food Security Index 2015, 97 percent of Saudi Arabia’s population has access to potable water, despite extremely low annual rainfall, very high evaporation rates and the depletion of groundwater through previously unfettered usage."

"According to Dr. Al Zaraa, the Kingdom’s water sources include desalinated water, renewable groundwaternon-renewable groundwatertreated wastewater and surface water. In 2016, he said, a total of 82 percent of non-renewable water consumption came in the agricultural sector, while the industrial and urban sectors accounted for 5 percent and 12 percent of non-renewable consumption, respectively."

"Between 2012 and 2016, per capita consumption of water in Saudi Arabia increased significantly from 237 liters to 271 liters, he continued, pointing out the significant challenges to reducing water consumption. This problem, he stressed, is not confined to the Kingdom but is, indeed, a global problem."


3. Many water pipelines!

Here some websites of companies about their water dam and pipeline projects.

LIMAK: RAS AL KHAIR-RIYADH WATER SUPPLY LINE SYSTEM, SAUDI ARABIA, 2015
http://www.limak.com.tr/sectors/construction/projects/projects-completed/pipe-lines/ras-al-khair-riyadh-water-supply-line-system-saudi-arabia

New link is here: http://www.limak.com.tr/sectors/construction/projects/projects-completed/pipe-lines/ras-al-khair-riyadh-water-supply-line-system-saudi-arabia

"Ras Al Khair-Riyadh Water Transmission Line Project is the first stage of a project to provide Riyadh with water and one of the biggest water supply schemes in the Gulf and Middle Eastern regions. The Project aims at meeting long term water requirements of Riyadh and upon its completion, 900.000 m³ of water can daily be carried to Riyadh from Ras Al Khair Sea Water Treatment Plant via a 72 inch 2x267,5 km steel pipeline.

The scope of the Project includes pipe coating, installation, line valve stations and other engineering structures as well as access roads, pipeline tests and start up of the system.

Civil works are already over under the Project which continues under the commitment of the Joint Venture of Limak and Mapa. Following hydrostatic tests, the system will be started up and the transmission line delivered to the employer. The Project is scheduled for completion in 2014."

The following website doesn't exist anymore! A modified version without specific info about Arabia is here: https://ahak.nl/en/our-expertise/water-pipelines

A.HAK: Water for Saudi Arabia
https://pipelines.ahak.nl/en/projects/20/water-for-saudi-arabia

Customer: SWCC
Description: Construction of a water pipeline to Riyadh
Timeframe: 2010 – 2012

Pipeline specifications
Pipeline length: 350 km
Diameter: 48" up to 72"
Wall thickness: 9 up to 30 mm
Material: steel

"Water through the desert
The growth of the number of residents in the city of Riyadh made the creation of a new transport system for drinking water into a necessity. The drinking water is produced in a combined power plant and desalination plant in Ras al-Khair (previously known as Ras al-Zour), located at the coast of the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. The distance from the city to Ras al-Khair is 460 kilometers. To create a redundant system, two parallel drinking water pipelines were constructed. The total trajectory therefore consists of 900 kilometers of pipeline, 3 pump stations, 13 water reservoirs, 360 kilometers of 13.8 kV power cables and a SCADA system. A.Hak International constructed the final segment, from pump station 3 to Riyadh including branch lines into the city. This trajectory stretches out 216 kilometers in length, which means that almost 400 kilometers of pipeline was constructed by A.Hak. With this new transport pipeline, over 900,000 cubic meters of water can now be delivered to the city on a daily basis."

"Pipelines
Almost 400 kilometers of pipeline with diameters varying between 48" and 72" and wall thicknesses of 9.52 mm up to 17.48 mm.
More than 40 roads were crossed. Together with A.Hak Drillcon, new drilling machines were used for drilling through hard rock formations with a diameter of 2.2 meters."

"Worth mentioning
The entire trajectory is constructed by the SSEM – RTCC – HAK consortium, which employs a large number of local staff members. A.Hak has already selected and trained more than 200 people to become fully skilled welders, fitters, operators and mechanics. The courses were given by A.Hak staff from the Netherlands. During project execution, more than 400 people from 11 different countries were involved.
"

Desalination in combination with power plants is also used, but this is not the main source of sweet water. Desalinated water doesn't fall as torrential precipitation and fill at least 230 dams and increase "subterranean water reserves".

Arabian Business: Top 10 power and water projects in Saudi Arabia
By Conrad Egbert and Lutfi Qaraman
https://www.arabianbusiness.com/top-10-power-water-projects-in-saudi-arabia-16169.html

"Saudi Arabia's demand for power has had to keep up with its growing economy. Construction Week picks out the biggest power and water projects in the Kingdom.

Yanbu IWPP
Value: US $4 billion
Client: Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu
Schedule: Bids were due to be submitted to Marafiq in August 27, 2008. Construction is estimated to start in the second quarter of this year and is expected to be completed in early 2013.
Scope: The project calls for the construction of a new independent water and power plant in Yanbu Industrial City. The plant will produce 1700MW and 150,000m³ per day of desalination water.
It will also use cracked heavy fuel oil and lowest additive concentration fuel as a back up.

Jubail IWPP
Value: US $3.4 billion
Client: Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu
Schedule: The Suez consortium was awarded the main construction contract in December 2006. The consortium is a joint venture of Suez Energy International, Belgium and Acwa Power Projects, Saudi Arabia. Construction started in early 2007 and is expected to be completed next year.
Scope: The project calls for the construction of an Independent Water and Power plant in Jubail Industrial City. The power plant will comprise four blocks and will be based on combined cycle generation gas turbines, where steam from the turbines will supply process steam to the desalination plant, which itself will comprise 27 units that will use Multiple Effect Distillation technology. Jubail IWPP will produce 2745MW of power.

1200MW Power Plant Next to Shuaiba Power Plant
Value: US $3 billion
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Alstom was awarded the main construction contract in July last year. Construction is in progress and expected to be completed in early 2013.
Scope: The project calls for the construction of a 1200MW power plant next to the Shuaiba power plant. The power plant is located 100km south of Jeddah.

Jizan Economic City (JEC) - Power Plant
Value: US $2.5 billion
Client: Saudi Binladin Group
Schedule: CPI Power Engineering was awarded the main construction contract in November 2008. Construction started early this year and is expected to be completed in 2013.
Scope: The project calls for construction of 2400MW captive power plant for an aluminium smelter in Jizan Economic City.

Jeddah Desalination Plant - Phase 3
Value: US $295 million
Client: Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Schedule: Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction was awarded the main construction contract in December 2008. Construction began earlier this year and is expected to be completed in 2012.
Scope: The project calls for construction of phase three of the Jeddah desalination plant. 380kV

Substation in Qassim
Value: US $191 million
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Siemens was awarded the main construction contract in July last year. Construction is in progress and expected to be completed in the third quarter of 2010.
Scope: The project calls for construction of 380kV Substation in Qassim province.

Tabouk Power Plant Extension - Phase 6
Value: US $175 million
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Najm Al Jazira Company and Trading Contracting and Agriculture were awarded the main construction contract in September last year. Construction started the following month, and is expected to be completed in November next year.
Scope: The project calls for the extension of Tabouk power plant, phase six. The plant is located in Tabouk city, Saudi Arabia.

380kV Madina East Substation
Value: US $170 million
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Al Toukhi Company for Industry, Trading and Contracting was awarded the main construction contract in June 2008. Construction is in progress and expected to be completed in second quarter of 2010.
Scope: The project calls for the construction of a 380kV Substation in Saudi Arabia's Madina East.

Upgrade of Wadi Al Dawasir Power Plant
Value: US $165 million
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Al Toukhi Contracting was awarded the main construction contract in July last year. Construction is in progress and expected to be completed in the third quarter of 2011.
Scope: The project calls for the upgrading and reinforcement of Wadi Al Dawasir power plant in Riyadh.

Qassim Fuel-Oil Pipeline
Value: US $132 million
Client: Saudi Electricity Company
Schedule: Gulf Consolidated Contractors was awarded the main construction contract in July last year. Construction began shortly after, and is expected to be completed in the third quarter of next year.
Scope: The project calls for the construction of Qassim fuel-Oil pipeline, which will connect Al Qassim power plant with the existing national grid.

For all the latest construction news from the UAE and Gulf countries, follow us on Twitter and Linkedin, like us on Facebook and subscribe to our YouTube page, which is updated daily."

Don't be distracted about "renewable energy", the real source of fuel is nuclear fracking!

WorldOil: Saudi Arabia plans spate of water project privatizations in 2019
By VIVIAN NEREIM on 12/25/2018
https://www.worldoil.com/news/2018/12/25/saudi-arabia-plans-spate-of-water-project-privatizations-in-2019

"NEW YORK (Bloomberg) -- Saudi Arabia plans to tender or award six water-related projects in 2019 as it pushes ahead with a privatization program that got off to a slow start.

The cabinet recently approved the tendering of seven desalination and wastewater projects. One was awarded this week, three are in various stages of tender process and three more will be offered to investors next year, the government’s National Center for Privatization and PPP said in a statement.

So far, more than 40% of the bids have come from international companies relying heavily on financing from international banks, the center said. It didn’t provide details on the monetary value of the water projects, but said the total value of all public-private partnerships to be tendered by 2020 is expected to be $6.4 billion to $7.5 billion (24 billion to 28 billion riyals).

The first project, a desalination plant in Rabigh that will supply water to the Mecca region, was awarded to a consortium led by ACWA Power on Monday.

Saudi Arabia unveiled a major privatization program in 2016 as part of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s plan to raise government revenue and diversify from oil. Economy Minister Mohammed Al Tuwaijri said last year that the government expected to raise some $200 billion in the next few years through privatization, however progress has been slow.

In addition to the water projects, the government plans in 2019 to move ahead on renewable energy projects in solar and wind, parking in Riyadh and a second cargo license station at King Khaled International Airport, according to the statement. It also plans to sell Saudia Medical Services facilities and four flour mill companies, and to establish an agriculture company,"


TYPSA Group: New water management contracts in Saudi Arabia
https://www.typsa.com/en/new-water-management-contracts-in-saudi-arabia/

"TYPSA’s success continues in the field of water management in Saudi Arabia. A new contract has recently been signed with the National Water Company (NWC) to provide strategic consulting services to the company’s management to track ongoing programs, support privatization processes and provide technical assistance for development.

In addition, design review and construction supervision services continue for the Riyadh water supply and the city’s four strategic storage tanks, each with a capacity of one million cubic metres.

In Jeddah, TYPSA is also carrying out the design review and construction supervision of water storage for the Jeddah water supply, which comprises two groups of tanks with an overall capacity of one million cubic metres, located in Faisaliyah and Briman. The project includes buildings, infrastructure systems, pumping stations and pipelines connected to Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and NWC transmission lines. The same tasks have been commissioned for the works in a large-scale hydraulic programme in Saada, 125 km from the Saudi capital, including water catchment, treatment and distribution.

Other TYPSA assignments include the design to supply industrial water to the new city of Waad Al Shamal, near the border with Jordan and Iraq, from the El Sakaka, Arar and Turaif waste water treatment facilities. This project comprises 500 km of pipeline with a 125.000 m³/day maximum flow, storage tanks with a total volume of 800,000 m³ and a clarification plant to ensure the quality of the water in accordance with the Saudi Arabian standards for industrial use.

In addition, the design of the Harad (Yabreen) – Riyadh water transmission system is also under way, which includes a well field, a 400 km pipeline and a desalination plant for 800,000 m³/d."


Water Transmission
https://www.ilf.com/business-areas/water-environment/water-transmission/

"The worldwide demand for water is growing continuously. This is especially the case in arid areas where water has to be transported over large distances to satisfy the needs of the local population and industries.

The extremely large quantities of water that have to be pumped through such pipelines for hundreds of kilometers require complex facilities. Ensuring the cost efficiency and continuous availability of water pipelines is a challenge to be addressed with every project. The optimization of investment and operating costs is one of ILF’s core competencies.

For more than three decades, ILF has been involved in the design and implementation of many complex international water transmission projects. ILF has become an international market leader in the field of large-scale water transmission systems.
"

A pipeline of ILF
A pipeline of ILF


Highlights:

  • Implementation of first “closed hydraulic system” design (Riyadh WTS, RWTS Lines A & B, Saudi Arabia)
  • 11,000+ km accumulated length of implemented systems
  • 2 million m³/d maximum capacity – the world’s largest seawater transmission system (Common Sea Water Supply Project, Iraq)
  • 1.2 million m³/d maximum capacity – the world’s largest drinking water transmission system (Rabigh to Jeddah/Makkah/Taif WTS, Saudi Arabia)
  • 950+ km pipeline length – one of the world’s longest water transmission systems comprising 4 independent pipelines (Shuqaiq Phase 2 WTS, Saudi Arabia)
  • 4,600 m maximum difference in elevation of a single system (Collahuasi WTS, Chile)
  • 35+ years of international experience in the design and implementation of water transmission systems

Following websites of Tekfen about their water transmission pipeline has been removed from official websites, but based on the descriptions the projects can be found elsewhere.

TEKFEN CONSTRUCTION: PIPELINE PROJECTS
http://www.tekfeninsaat.com.tr/pipeline.asp
 
AZERBAIJAN - WESTERN ROUTE PIPELINE, AZERI SECTION

AZERBAIJAN - APSHERON PENINSULA HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE AND ASSOCIATED COMPRESSOR STATION
GEORGIA - PUMP STATIONS, PRESSURE REDUCING STATIONS AND MOBILE RADIO STATIONS ALONG BAKU - SUPSA PIPELINE

IRAQ - TURKEY CRUDE OIL PIPELINE & TANK FARM, 2nd EXPANSION
IRAQ - RUMAILA GENERAL INSTALLATION SERVICES

KAZAKHSTAN - SAZTUBE - YELEMEZ - APORNI CRUDE OIL PIPELINE
KAZAKHSTAN - CASPIAN PIPELINE CONSORTIUM PIPELINE, KAZAKHSTAN SECTION (CPC-K)

KUWAIT - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF WAFRA - MINA SAUD CRUDE OIL PIPELINE

LIBYA - AL KHUFRA - TAZERBO WATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEM
MOROCCO - OCP SLURRY PIPELINE PROJECT

QATAR - RAS LAFFAN - MESAIEED, ETHANE TRANSMISSION PIPELINE
QATAR - UMM BAB - MESAIEED CRUDE OIL PIPELINE

SAUDI ARABIA - AL JUBAIL - RIYADH LINE-C PIPELINE
SAUDI ARABIA - ARAMCO HAWIYAH AREA GAS PIPELINE
SAUDI ARABIA - EASTERN PROVINCE WATER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
SAUDI ARABIA - WESTERN PROVINCE WATER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
SAUDI ARABIA - JUAYMAH GAS PLANT TO BERRI ETHANE PIPELINE
SAUDI ARABIA - HARADH GAS PLANT, DOWNSTREAM GAS AND CONDENSATE PIPELINES
SAUDI ARABIA - QUAD - 1 PIPELINE FOR AIN DAR & SHEDGUM SEAWATER CONVERSION SYSTEM
SAUDI ARABIA - TAIF SEWERAGE AND STORM WATER SYSTEM
SAUDI ARABIA - YANBU- NORTH JEDDAH PIPELINES PROJECT
SAUDI ARABIA - SATELLITE GAS COMPRESSOR PIPELINES PROJECT

SULTANATE OF OMAN - HARWEEL CLUSTER PHASE II FACILITIES, GAS & OIL PIPELINE

TURKEY - FIRST IRAQ - TURKEY CRUDE OIL PIPELINE, TURKISH SECTION
TURKEY - YUMURTALIK - KIRIKKALE CRUDE OIL PIPELINE
TURKEY - PROVISION OF PIPELINE REPAIR SERVICES
TURKEY - TANAP TRANS ANATOLIAN NATURAL GAS PIPELINE PROJECT– LOT 3
TURKEY - TANAP TRANS ANATOLIAN NATURAL GAS PIPELINE PROJECT– COMPRESSOR AND METERING STATIONS
TURKEY - BTC REPAIR AND ENHANCEMENT PROJECTS

TURKMENISTAN - GALKYNYSH GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

MAPA CONSTRUCTION: RABIGH - JEDDAH / MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH POTABLE WATER PIPELINE
http://www.mngmapa.com/rabigh-jeddah

"The construction of a 452 km long twin pipeline project with a 80"-10" diameter that includes 14 tanks with a capacity of 1,500 m³ - 170,000 m³ and 4 pumping stations."

MAPA CONSTRUCTION: SHUQAIQ POTABLE WATER PIPELINE, PHASE II
Construction of a 935 km long water transmission pipeline in Saudi Arabia
http://www.mngmapa.com/shuqaiq2-water

"PIPELINE CONSTRUCTIONS
The construction includes the biggest pumping station of the world, elevating water from sea level to 2,600 meters. Due to its geographical location, it was one of the most challenging projects undertaken in Saudi Arabia.

CLIENT: SALINE WATER CONVERSION CORPORATION
LOCATION: SHUQAIQ, SAUDI ARABIA
PROJECT START DATE: 01.06.2007
TRANSMISSION PIPELINE LENGTH: 935 km
PUMPING STATIONS: 8
PIPELINE DIAMETER: 6” - 64"
CONTRACTOR: MAPA CONSTRUCTION
STATUS: COMPLETED"


4. Some current dam images!

"Dams #المجمعة 1-The old dam is one of the most important dams reaches the capacity of the dam 1.3 million cubic meters, built during the reign of King Faisal during the year 1389 2. The new dam has a capacity of 5.579.000 cubic metres built in 1428 3. Wadi Kalbi Dam with a capacity of 1 million and 200 cubic meters built in 1432"

"#المجمعة New Dam The dam has a length of 370 meters from the bottom and 400 meters from the top and the dam width 105 meters from the bottom and 4.6 from the top. -The dam rises 15 meters from the abdomen of the valley. -Storage capacity is more than 5 million cubic meters and the flood of this dam 11 m and width 57 m."

"#المجمعة Old Dam The length of the dam is 360 meters and the dam width is 3 meters -The dam rises 7 meters from the abdomen of the valley. -Storage capacity of more than 1.3 million million cubic meters and the flood of this dam 6.20 m"

"* Governorate #الظاهرة #عبري of Wadi al-Hajer (Dam) 2019/4/21m, Antiquities #أخدود_الهزيم. Cinematographer: Sultan Al Maqbali @sul1991tan"

"Kelbi #بالمجمعة Dam 600 meters long, a width of 31 meters, the storage capacity is about 1 million and 200 cubic meters of water"

"A beautiful short tour in the valley of the #المجمعة Mashager"

"One of the water sinks in the new compound dam, which is directly below the end of the dam, knowing that there are several sinks to drain the water to the ground, so it is 10 years, although the torrent did not stop. Friday 15 Shaaban 1440 19 April 2019"

"The new compound dam on Friday morning 15 Shaaban 1440 corresponding to April 19, 2019 the water level at the dam was 6.60 six meters and sixty years Oh God thank you and thanks"

"A #المجمعة beautiful lake and a distinctive spring outlet with many tourist features. You need more care and intensification of services. #المملكة #تصويري"

JEDDAH FLOOD PREVENTION, FIVE DAMS AND CANAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECT, SAUDI ARABIA
http://www.onurgroup.com/EN/Onur/content/Dam/Jeddah-Flood-Prevention-Five-Dams-and-Canal-Construction-Project-Saudi-Arabia/#subslide
http://www.onurgroup.com/assets/images/galleries/22/larges/14449709_Suudi-Arabistan-Cidde-Ta%C5%9Fk%C4%B1n-%C3%96nleme-5-Baraj-ve-Kanal-%C4%B0n%C5%9Faat%C4%B1-Projesi.jpeg
























Baysh Dam
https://www.yuksel.net/en/projects/all-projects/dams-a-hepps/568-baysh-baraji

"Baysh dam is located in the Baysh Valley, 113 km far from the city of Jizan in Saudi Arabia. It is constructed for flood control and irrigation of farmland. Baysh is a concrete gravity type dam having a 340 m long crest which is 120 m high from the foundation level. The total reservoir capacity of the dam is 192 million m3."



"Client Saudi Arabia Water and Electricity Ministry
Location Jizan / Saudi Arabia
Contract Date 14 April 2003
Completion Date 17 May 2009"

Dams in Saudi Arabia‎
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attractions-g293991-Activities-c57-t11-oa20-Saudi_Arabia.html

Dams in Al Bahah - Baha Province
Dams in Nejran - Nejran Province
Dams in Ushaiqer - Riyadh Province
Dams in Al Kamil - Makkah Province
Dams in Sharorah - Nejran Province
Dams in Tabouk - Tabouk Province
Dams in Safwa - Eastern Province
Dams in Diryah - Riyadh Province
Dams in Rabigh - Makkah Province
Dams in Ar Rass - Al Qasim Province
Dams in Farasan - Jizan Province
Dams in Khaybar - Al Madinah Province
Dams in Saihat - Eastern Province
Dams in Khamis Mushait - Asir Province
Dams in Dumah Al Jandal - Jouf Province
Dams in Tarout - Eastern Province

Hali Dam, Saudi Arabia
"The Hali Dam is a gravity dam on Wadi Hali about 14km east Keyad in Makkah Province of south western Saudi Arabia"
https://www.fosroc.com/english/case-studies/hali-dam-qunfuda-saudi-arabia/


"THE PROJECT

The Hali Dam is a gravity dam on Wadi Hali about 14km east Keyad in Makkah Province of south western Saudi Arabia. The dam has many purposes to include flood control, irrigation municipal water supply. The dam's reservoir has a total storage of 249,860,000m3, making it the second largest in the country after the King Fahad Dam.

The Dam is 384m in length, 71m width at the base and 8m width at the top crest.

The dam was constructed between 2003 - 2009 by Al-Dakheel Contracting Company. It is owned and operated by the Ministry of Water and Electricity.

THE SOLUTION

The Fosroc team joined the contractors from the beginning of the project and made all trials to achieve the requirement for the concrete. Fosroc products helped the client achieve the required high quality results starting from the first stage with Supercast waterstop, Rearguard S and coatings Nitobond EP, Nitoproof 10 along with more than 0.5 millions litres of Fosroc admixtures.

THE BENEFITS

The client benefited from being able to contract with a single party for the various types of construction demands, giving an economical solution that could be applied rapidly and to the required specification."

Dornier CONSULTING: KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: DAM WATER UTILIZATION
https://www.dornier-consulting.com/references/study-and-design-of-utilization-of-dam-water-in-various-regions-of-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia/

"Client: Ministry of Water & Electricity (MOWE)
Partner: The project is jointly executed with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Project Description: The primary purpose of the project is developing concepts for the utilization of the water from 100 dams (48 of which are operating, 52 are under construction or planned), located in the west and south-west of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. At a later stage of the project, detailed designs, ready for tendering for water utilization infrastructures shall be provided. As a first step, as-is assessment of the current situation is crucial. Therefore all dams have been visited, information collected and water samples taken wherever possible. As main criteria for future dam water use, the amount of available water and its quality have been defined. A further criteria is the water demand in the vicinity of the dams (e.g. for agriculture / irrigation or domestic water supply). Phase 1 shall identify dams for further detailed investigation and elaboration of preliminary designs. The third phase comprises detailed design for the construction of water infrastructure facilities, such as pumping stations, reservoirs, pipeline systems and, where applicable and useful, water treatment plants. A further utilization method to be considered is controlled artificial recharge of the downstream Wadis (e.g. by means of underground dams and future utilization by shallow groundwater wells). The detailed designs shall be provided for 50 dams."

"Project Duration 2010 – 2012

Our Services
As-is assessment at 100 dams, including sampling and water analyses
Development of dam water utilization concepts
Preliminary design of water infrastructure facilities (water treatment plants, pumping stations, reservoirs, pipeline systems, underground dams, etc.)
Detailed design for the above

Results
Water sampling and technical evaluation of existing infrastructures (finalized)
Elaboration of water utilization concepts (ongoing)
Preliminary design (future task)
Final design (future task)


5. Water, Energy, CO2 gasification!

Here is a list of water, gas, oil and power plant projects. The other projects like shopping malls and building construction have been removed from the complete list, which you can find on the original source.

A very revealing project is the one about CO2 processing plant.

New Project Information in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia New Project Updates.
http://www.sauditenders.com/new-projects-in-saudiarabia.asp

Saudi Arabia Projects Information

Name : King Salman Energy Park (Spark) Project
Description :Construction of an Energy Park.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :339793Last Updated :April 23, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Offshore Pipelines Replacement Project - Berri Oil Field
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract for the replacement of ....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :377808Last Updated :April 23, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Oil Production Deck Modules Project - Zuluf Offshore Field Development
Description :Construction and installation of three offshore oil production deck modules.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :420867Last Updated :April 23, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Water Injection Facilities Construction - Berri Oil & Gas Field
Description :Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for the construction of....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :450172Last Updated :April 22, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Three Pipelines Installation Project - Marjan Field Development Project (Packages - 16, 17 & 18)
Description :Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for the installation o....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :450163Last Updated :April 22, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Butadiene Extraction Plant Expansion Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract for the expansion of a ....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :24877Last Updated :April 21, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Marjan Onshore Field Development Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract for the development of ....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :374426Last Updated :April 18, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Al Wesam Substation Construction Project
Description :Construction of a 110/13.8kV Substation with installation, erection as well as c....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :346593Last Updated :April 18, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Jubail Petrochemicals Complex Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract to build a petrochemica....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :388494Last Updated :April 18, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Gas Oil Separation Plant (GOSP) Project - Marjan Offshore Field Development (Package 1)
Description :Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract to build a Gas Oil Sepa....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :378829Last Updated :April 18, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name :Al Khandama Substation Project
Description :Construction of 110/13.8kV Substation with installation, erection and complete t....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :346581Last Updated :April 18, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Water Injection System Upgrade Project - Manifa Oil Field
Description :Carrying out upgrading of the water injection system at an oil field.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :358160Last Updated :April 17, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Safaniya Oilfield Redevelopment - Phase 6
Description :Engineering, procurement, construction and installation (EPCI) contract on the s....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :357690Last Updated :April 17, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Yanbu - North Jeddah Oil Products Pipeline Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract to build a pipeline for....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :294648Last Updated :April 17, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Shuqaiq 3 IWP
Description :Construction of an Independent Water Project (IWP) with a capacity of 380,000 cu....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :329569Last Updated :April 17, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name :Yanbu 4 IWP
Description :Construction of an Independent Water Project (IWP) with a capacity of 450,000 cu....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :329566Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Gas Treatment Facilities, Offsites & Utilities Development Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract to build gas treatment ....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :182640Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Gas Cap Production Network Project
Description :Implementation of a gas cap production network.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :449198Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Plant Project - Al Khobar
Description :Construction of CO2 Plant.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :415672Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :Current Project View Details

Name : Zuluf Offshore Oilfield Expansion Project
Description :Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract for the expansion of an....
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :349510Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : Uthamaniya Substation Project
Description :Construction of a 115/13.8kV GIS substation.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :449156Last Updated :April 16, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Name : BSP Substation Project - Jeddah Airport Housing
Description :Construction of a 380/110/13.8kV BSP substation.
Country Name :Saudi ArabiaReference No :449036Last Updated :April 15, 2019 Status :New Tender View Details

Técnicas Reunidas wins contract for Jazan IGCC project (Saudi Arabia)6 May 2014
https://www.enerdata.net/publications/daily-energy-news/tecnicas-reunidas-wins-contract-jazan-igcc-project-saudi-arabia.html

"Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company of Saudi Arabia, has selected Técnicas Reunidas (Spain) for the execution of the Utilities & Common Area project within the Jazan IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) complex in the Jazan Economic City, located in Jazan Province, a south western region of Saudi Arabia. Técnicas Reunidas will develop the utilities and off-sites facilities for the IGCC complex under a Lump Sum Turn Key (LSTK) contract worth US$1.7bn covering the services for engineering, procurement, construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning support for the facilities. The Jazan IGCC complex will convert vacuum residue to be produced in the adjacent Jazan refinery into synthesis gas (syngas). The gasification unit will have a capacity of 2,110,000 Nm3/h (18.4 bcm/year) of syngas that will be evenly used to produce purified hydrogen for the refinery and to fuel a combined cycle facility producing utilities and power for the refinery and export to the national grid. Total output of the plant will be of approximately 2,400 MW. The facilities will be operational in 2017."

Saudi Aramco selects Shell technology for Jizan power plant
Jizan gasification process to increase scope of work
https://www.2b1stconsulting.com/saudi-aramco-selects-shell-technology-for-jizan-power-plant/

"Saudi Aramco selected Shell technology for the power plant to be part of the giant Jizan Refinery project on the southeast of Saudi Arabia.

Together with the refinery, the Jizan gazification project is the master piece of the development of this southern region of Saudi Arabia with the Jazan Economic City construction to include all type of manufacturing industries.

Located in Bish near Jizan (or Jazan), along the Red Sea, the Jizan Economic city will be erected far from any other infrastructures in the country, rising questions about costs and economical impact.




But with the variety of its industrial activitiesin beginning with the production and export of energy and petrochemical products, the Jizan Industrial City will take a strategic position as allowing Saudi Arabia to export in parallel to the sensitive Strait of Hormuz."

"In April 2012, the Houston-based KBR and its local subsidiary Abdulhadi and Al-Moaibed Consulting Engineering Co. (AMCDE) completed the front end engineering and design (FEED) work.

From this FEED, the Jizan refinery shall be designed to treat 400,000 barrels per day (20 million t/y) of Arabian Heavy crude oil and Arabian Medium crude oil.

It will produce:

– 75,000 b/d of gasoline

– 100,000 to 160,000 b/d of ultra low sulfur diesel

– 160,000 to 220,000 b/d of fuel oil

Aromatics with Benzene and Paraxylene

Benefiting from its General Engineering Services Plus (GES+) contract, KBR is also providing Saudi Aramcowith project management consultancy services for the Jizan Refinery project.
Saudi Aramco awarded eight EPC packages in Jizan

KBR FEED work conclusions have split the Jizan Refinery project in 11 main packages for the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) phase.

In November 2012, Saudi Aramco awarded eight EPC packages:
 

– Ali Al-Ajmi Group for the site preparation

Hanwha Engineering and Construction for the marine terminal

Hitachi Plant Corporation for the offsites and utilities packages

– Hyundai Arabia for the sour water stripper unit and amine regeneration unit

JGC Corporation for the naphtha and aromatics (benzene and paraxylene) units

Petrofac Saudi Arabia for two tank farms packages for $1.4 billion

SK Engineering for the crude distillation and vacuum unit

Tecnicas Reunidas for the hydrocracker and diesel hydrotreater packages

Among the few pending packages, stands the Jizan power plant for which Saudi Aramco is currently proceeding to the pre-qualification of the potential bidders.

From the conceptual study of the whole Jazan Industrial City project, the Jizan power plant should deliver 2,400 MW from which 500 MW should supply the Refinery and the remaining 1,900 MW should be distributed to the rest of the City.
Jizan Gasification Plant to integrate sulfur packages

In order to optimize energy efficiency Saudi Aramco selected the Shell Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology.

To use 90,000 barrels per day of vacuum residue from the Refinery as feedstock, the processes of the Jizan Gasification plant are closer to petrochemical processes than conventional gas-fired or fuel-fired power plants.
 

In addition to the electricity this Shell IGCC processwill supply the refinery with hydrogen and the Jizan Industrial City with water.

Shell IGCC technology might be more expensive than conventional power generation plant but it generate lower emissions of CO2, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates than conventional power plants.

It also consumes less water, and produce only about half as much solid waste.

As Shell IGCC is combining refinery residues with oxygen to produce synthesis gas and power the turbines, Saudi Aramco is preparing tender for the oxygen package in parallel to the refinery.

But it is still unclear if it will be an Jizan Refinery project integrated package or an oxygen supply contract.

Since the fuel gas desulfurization performances is directly related to the IGCC process, this package, as well as the sulfur recovery unit have been transferred from the Jizan Refinery project packages to the Jizan Power Plant project packages.

The consequence is to increase the content of the Jizan Power plant package which may end up somewhere between $3 and $5 billion capital expenditure.

Despite this increase in the scope of work, Saudi Aramco, Shell and KBR expect the Jizan Gasification Plant to come on stream at the end of 2016."


Dear readers, if you would like to learn more about the combination of nuclear fracking and underground gasification (IGCC & similar methods), please check following article, which is available only in German yet:

In Deutschland wird der Untergrund seit 1961 "unkonventionell" mit Atombomben gefrackt!
Warum die Kohle "unten bleiben" soll!
https://geoarchitektur.blogspot.com/p/in-deutschland-wird-der-untergrund-seit.html

There are many links to other sources, also in English.


6. More about water in Arabia

Saudi Arabia consumed 3 bln cubic meters of drinking water in 2017
26/08/2018Argaam Special
https://www.argaam.com/en/article/articledetail/id/567200  "Saudi Arabia’s drinking water consumption rose by 0.64 percent year-on-year (YoY) to 3.15 billion cubic meters in 2017, data issued by the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture showed. Desalinated water accounted for 69 percent (2.18 billion cubic meters) of the total distribution of drinking water for the year, while groundwater represented 31 percent or 975 million cubic meters."
Drinking Water Consumption (mln cubic meters)
Year Consumption
2009 2,123
2010 2,284
2011 2,423
2012 2,527
2013 2,731
2014 2,874
2015 3,025
2016 3,130
2017 3,150
"Riyadh topped the list in terms of water consumed by various cities in the Kingdom, with 1.07 billion cubic meters of drinking water, or 34 percent of the total consumption. It was followed by Makkah at 750 million cubic meters, or 23.8 percent. The average per capita consumption rate in Saudi Arabia reached 265 liters per day in 2017, as shown in the following table:"
Water Consumption by City
Area Water (mln cubic meters) Population (mln) Average per capita consumption liter)
Riyadh 1070 8.22 357
Makkah 750 8.56 240
Eastern 682 4.90 381
Madinah 201 2.13 258
Asir 101 2.21 125
Qassim 65 1.42 124
Jazan 59 1.57 102
Hail 58 0.70 228
Tabuk 52 0.91 158
Al-Baha 32 0.48 189
Northern borders 30 0.37 224
Al-Jouf 28 0.51 149
Najran 22 0.58 105
Total 3,150 32.55 265
"The number of consumers rose 6 percent YoY to 1.97 million in 2017. Riyadh had the largest number of consumers at 612,700, while Makkah had 349,400 last year."
No. of Consumers (‘000)

Area

2016 2017 Change
Riyadh 594.4 612.7 +3%
Makkah 347.1 349.4 +1%
Maddinah 102.6 114.5 +12%
Qassim 148.3 155.9 +5%
Eastern 333.0 337.8 +1%
Asir 43.9 44.5 +1%
Tabuk 36.9 71.1 +93%
Hail 66.6 69.7 +5%
Northern Borders 26.3 29.9 +14%
Jazan 71.4 73.0 +2%
Najran 48.2 51.6 +7%
Al-Baha 33.2 35.0 +5%
Al-Jouf 8.5 28.5 +235%
Total 1,860.4 1,973.6 +6%
"

Saudi Arabia launches program for a drastic reduction in water use
Through the program, the ministry aims to reduce daily per capita consumption from 263 liters to 200 liters by 2020 and to 150 liters by 2030.

Mar 21st, 2019

"Saudi Arabia has more than 30 desalination plants in 17 locations."

Exploring the Kingdom’s largest natural lake "Dawmat Al-Jandal"
دومة الجندل أكبر بحيرة طبيعية في المملكة
25 JAN 2020
https://www.wafyapp.com/en/article/exploring-the-kingdoms-largest-natural-lake-dawmat-al-jandal

"Dumat Al-Jandal Lake is located on an area of about 1 million square meters and is 585 meters deep. It was formed in a low hillside elevation from all sides and fed by rainwater, groundwater and agricultural water. The area’s development began in 2006, and the surrounding streets were asphalted and more lighting and a gated fence added."

Dumat Al-Jandal Lake
Author: Roger Harrison, roger@arabnews.com Publication Date: Thu, 2003-09-18 03:00
"Any lake is a rare feature in the desert; this one is not natural, but the result of the outflow of processed waste. What makes it unique is how clean the water is, and why it remains that way."

Dumat Al-Jandal City and Lake on Google-Maps:

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