IS CO2 A POLLUTANT?
Using the notion “pollution” for CO2 is totally wrong.
CO2 is the gas of symbiosis between flora and fauna.
Taking out one important element would endanger the symbiosis of life at its beginning.
This symbiosis is conducted by photosynthesis, which requires the availability of CO2, water and sunlight.
The symbiosis between flora and fauna is now broken by taking out the sunlight. As a result, less CO2 is processed to food and O2.
So now the food chain and air chain are in danger! Do You understand these dependencies?
2. Explaining sunlight deprivation by studies!
Let me explain You this by scientific studies, which is clearly explaining the symbiosis what "bleaching" really means. The first study is testing the turbidity by dredging, but the it applies also for Troposheric Aerosol Injection (TAI), which results in long term sunlight deprivation!
The important statements are highlighted by bold black and red color and left in the context by larger quoting.
Please consider that since the global roll out of ClimateControl, nearly every study has to use some words about "climate change" to get the needed financing and support. The whole scientific fraud is secured by keeping the scientists occupied with symptoms and preventing any research about the reason behind all death and diseases! So I ignore the interwoven propaganda and just concentrate on the remaining facts and scientific results.
The first study is useful to show that corals react to weak sunlight or darkness directly by exposing their symbiotic algae!
Corals may react on overheating, poisoning or any other disturbance with expulsions of their symbiotic partners, however this study may help the readers not to be limited on the mantra about "heating".
Impacts of light limitation on corals and crustose coralline algae
Pia Bessell-Browne,1,2,3 Andrew P. Negri,1,3 Rebecca Fisher,1,3 Peta L. Clode,2 and Ross Jones1,3
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►
"Turbidity associated with elevated suspended sediment concentrations can significantly reduce underwater light availability. Understanding the consequences for sensitive organisms such as corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA), requires an understanding of tolerance levels and the time course of effects. Adult colonies of Acropora millepora and Pocillopora acuta, juvenile P. acuta, and the CCA Porolithon onkodeswere exposed to six light treatments of ~0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.4, 1.1 and 4.3 mol photons m−2 d−1, and their physiological responses were monitored over 30 d. Exposure to very low light (<0 .1="" b="" caused="" d-1="" m-2="" mol="" photons="">tissue discoloration 0>(bleaching) in the corals, and discolouration (and partial mortality) of the CCA, yielding 30 d EI10 thresholds (irradiance which results in a 10% change in colour) of 1.2–1.9 mol photons m−2 d−1. Recent monitoring studies during dredging campaigns on a shallow tropical reef, have shown that underwater light levels very close (~500 m away) from a working dredge routinely fall below this value over 30 d periods, but rarely during the pre-dredging baseline phase. Light reduction alone, therefore, constitutes a clear risk to coral reefs from dredging, although at such close proximity other cause-effect pathways, such as sediment deposition and smothering, are likely to also co-occur."
"A key to the ecological and evolutionary success of scleractinian corals is the formation of a mutualistic symbiosis with endosymbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.)1, 2. Carbohydrates produced by oxygenic photosynthesis of the algal symbionts and translocated to the coral host provide much of the energy required for maintenance, growth and reproduction 3–5. This exchange has enabled the symbiosis to survive and coral reefs to proliferate in oligotrophic environments, however, the light dependency has also placed constraints on phototropic corals, limiting their distribution to comparatively low latitudes (~32° north and south of the equator), and shallow depths (~10% of surface light or 50 m)6–9."
"Benthic light availability is largely determined by surface irradiance (insolation), and primarily influenced by cloud cover, water depth, and transmittance through the water, i.e. water cloudiness or turbidity 10."
"... These include photoadaptation of the symbionts and changes in the sub-saturation point for photosynthesis 33, and in some species switching from phototrophic to heterotrophic feeding 34, 35. Corals can also temporarily rely on energy reserves 36, rapidly replenishing reserves when conditions become more favourable 37."
"Only a few studies have examined the effects of exposure to very low light (<0 .1="" and="" b="" corals="" d="" have="" m="" mol="" on="" photons="" these="">mostly been associated with investigating the role of the symbiotic dinoflagellates0> in the symbiosis. For example, Yonge and Nicholls 38 showed that extrusion of Symbiodinium, and subsequent discolouration (bleaching), occurred in response to darkness for a variety of tropical reef flat corals over 18 d (Lobactis scutaria), 22 d (Psammocora contigua) and 19 d (Galaxea fascicularis). Franzisket 39 exposed four species of hermatypic corals (Pocillopora elegans, Porites compressa, Montipora verrucosa andFungia scularia) to darkness for 60 d. All colonies bleached within 10–20 d and there was no growth observed over the exposure period 39. Pocillopora elegans died after 30 d while the remaining species survived over the exposure period 39. Kevin and Hudson 40 showed the temperate coral, Plesiastrea urvillei, lost algal symbionts after ~40 d in darkness. Hoegh-Guldberg and Smith 41 observed bleaching of Stylophora pistillata in the dark after 10 d, while Titlyanov, et al. 42 observed bleaching of S. pistillata after 4 d. In a study investigating the mechanism of bleaching, DeSalvo, et al. 43 reported colonies of Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata becoming pale and eventually bleaching after 3–5 d in darkness."
"A temporary reduction in benthic light is a well-known hazard of dredging-related activities 24. We recently demonstrated that light attenuation represents a greater threat to coral health than any physical effects of suspended sediment particles 44. The study investigated the impacts of three light levels (~0, 1.1 and 8.3 mol photons m−2 d−1), and three suspended sediment concentrations (0, 30 and 100 mg L−1), on three common coral species, including Acropora millepora, Porites spp. and Montipora capricornis; and found bleaching of corals in low light treatments (~0 and 1.1 mol photons m−2 d−1) and no mortality associated with 100 mg L−1 of suspended sediments when light levels remained high (8.3 mol photons m−2 d−1). ..."
"Coral colonies in the lower light treatments gradually lost colour though time, with paling observed after 10 d in all groups when exposed to <0 .1="" 20="" b="" by="" corals="" d="" exposed="" m="" mol="" photons="" to="" were="">bone white0>, while those exposed to 0.4 mol photons m−2 d−1 were very pale. This colour loss was uniform across each fragment. ..."
"The gradual loss of colour and eventual bleaching of corals exposed to low light (<1 are="" b="" d="" m="" mol="" photons="">consistent with studies which exposed corals to complete darkness1>. In this study corals began noticeably paling after 4–5 days and were heavily bleached after 10 days, similar to the observations of impacts caused by complete darkness reported by Hoegh-Guldberg and Smith 41, Franzisket 39, Yonge and Nicholls 38 and Titlyanov, et al. 42, for a range of reef flat species, but slower than observed by DeSalvo, et al. 43, who observed heavy bleaching of Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata after 3 and 5 d in darkness respectively. While these studies provide important thresholds determining the time required to bleach in complete darkness, our study provides critical light thresholds for bleaching that can be applied to manage dredging that causes near-darkness for weeks 22, 23."
"Several microsensor studies have shown that when placed in darkness, coral tissue rapidly (within minutes) enters a hypoxic and then near anaerobic state 52–55. This is due to high metabolic activity of the symbiotic dinoflagellates and polyp tissue, limiting the diffusive supply of O2 from the surrounding water through the diffusion boundary layer. Although corals routinely enter hypoxia at night time, tissue oxygen concentrations also rapidly increase on exposure to light in the early morning 53. How corals tolerate hypoxia is unknown, although symbiotic anemones have been found to survive through fermentation processes involving glycolysis 56–58. Such fermentation processes have been observed in corals when exposed to hypoxia from sediment smothering 59. These processes produce ATP at approximately 6-fold lower yields than aerobic respiration 60, offering a short term, temporary energy source, but not over extended periods in low light (<1 d="" i="" m="" mol="" photons="">"
"A characteristic of the patterns of low-light induced bleaching was the uniform, even, tissue discolouration (Fig. 1), as opposed to the often variegated and sunlight orientated patterns of discolouration that can occur during warm-water bleaching events 61. This suggests a different mechanism of bleaching, but the cue that initiates the dissociation is not clear. In A. millepora, and P. actua adults and juveniles, the quantum efficiency F v/F m of the Symbiodinium spp. decreased following long periods in darkness and the very low-light treatments (<0 .4="" a="" and="" be="" changes="" could="" d="" due="" electron="" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599546/#CR43" leading="" m="" membrane="" mol="" nbsp="" of="" photons="" reduced="" structural="" the="" this="" thylakoid="" to="" transport="" unstacking="">430>1>, 62. A reduction in the translocation of photosynthate from the algal symbionts to the host has been suggested as a potential cue for warm bleaching 63, 64. Alternatively, if the hypoxia of the coral tissues in very low light is related to the metabolic activity of the symbionts in the coral tissues, then elimination of the source of the problem, the algal symbionts (i.e. bleaching), seems a relatively simple explanation and survival strategy. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism, towards the end of the exposure period the loss of algal symbionts at daily light integrals lower than <1 .1="" b="" d="" in="" m="" mol="" photons="" resulted="">photosynthesis:respiration ratios of less than one1>, demonstrating little photosynthetic capacity. As the colonies were not fed during the exposure period, they were most likely drawing on energy reserves to meet their metabolic requirements 3, 65."
Without production of oxygen by photosynthesis of this symbiosis also fish, the crabs, the mammals and all the other animals are SUFFOCATED to DEATH!
The FOOD and AIR chain is killed at its beginning!
Coral Skeletons Defend against Ultraviolet Radiation
PLoS One. 2009; 4(11): e7995. Published online 2009 Nov 25. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007995 PMCID: PMC2776492
"Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage."
"Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life."
"Photosynthesis is a common pervasive characteristic of shallow tropical marine habitats with organisms being photosynthetic or involved in a tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. In the latter case, the intimate association of animals such as corals and these primary producers plus the efficient recycling of nutrients underpins their success in the generally nutrient poor waters of the tropics. In this respect, reef-building corals rely greatly on photosynthates produced by their symbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium , which can harnesses the abundant solar energy in the tropics to fix carbon and translocate organic carbon for coral respiration . In return, Symbiodinium gains access to the inorganic nutrients flowing from the catabolic processes of the coral host. The autotrophic energy provided by Symbiodinium to the coral host results in carbon fixation by coral reefs that is six times higher than that in neighbouring oligotrophic waters , , allowing for the formation of complex reef structures which provide niches for a diverse range of organisms."
"The symbiosis between scleractinian corals and Symbiodinium probably arose in the late Triassic . Corals have evolved to optimise the photosynthetic activities of the resident Symbiodinium through changes to their morphologies , ,  or through changes in tissue composition  or population density of Symbiodinium , . As a result of these evolutionary pressures, corals have evolved into highly efficient light-harvesting organisms . They can utilise light six times more efficiently than plants  due to multiple scattering of photons within the skeleton and the tissue-water interface , thereby increasing photonic path lengths and subsequently the chance of interception by a photosystem . This enhancement of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) allows the coral to increase its photosynthetic yields. However, as solar radiation also contains Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR), an increase in PAR could be accompanied with side effects of a considerable increase in harmful UVR."
"UVR photons contain enough energy that upon absorption they break chemical bonds. The most sensitive of the organic molecules are aromatic compounds  such as DNA, proteins and membranes. Direct damage caused by the absorption of a UV photon by DNA can manifest in the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which can make up 75% of UV-induced DNA lesions , 6–4 photoproducts (6–4PPs) or the Dewar valence isomer of the 6-4(PP). UV can also act indirectly and create lesions such as oxidised or hydrated bases, single-strand breaks and more . CPDs, the greater part of the DNA damage observed and the focus of our study, are formed between two adjacent pyrimidine bases in DNA exposed to UVR and are known to induce cell death , . Thus, while exposure to solar radiation is fundamental for coral growth, avoiding UVR damage is just as vital."
"The skeleton greatly reduced the amount of UVR in the tissue above it but it did not eliminate UVR altogether. Furthermore, the skeleton is deposited below the tissue, so UVR photons must pass through the tissue at least once, ensuing other methods must be employed by the coral to protect against UVR damage. Corals deal with UVR in many ways. One mechanism to defend their tissues from UVR is to use sunscreen molecules, (mycosporine like amino-acids, MAAs , ). This pathway, however, requires a large energy input to produce and maintain the pigment molecules involved . Corals also have an efficient DNA repair mechanism that rapidly targets UV-inflicted DNA damage when it occurs . In combination, these pathways provide a high level of protection against UVR and contribute to the ability of corals to thrive under ultraviolet levels that can be lethal to other coral reef epifauna ."
"‘Giant’ clams, (family Tridacnidae), native to coral reefs of the western tropical Pacific, reach their large sizes in part due to a photosymbiosis with brown, single-cell algae of the genus Symbiodinium . As part of this photosymbiotic lifestyle, these clams have evolved a weighted shell hinge and/or boring behaviour, ensuring that the shell gape always points upward to the sky, thus exposing the animal's mantle tissues to sunlight . The surface of the mantle tissue is covered with a layer of clam cells called iridocytes, which impart the clams’ famously sparkly, colourful appearance (figure 1a,b,d). The mantle tissue lines the exposed inner surfaces of the shell and is several millimetres thick. Under the colourful iridocytes concentrated at the surface of the tissue, there are high densities of photosynthesizing Symbiodinium (figure 2a). The rare clam without iridocytes appears dark-coloured due to these high densities of algae (figure 1c,e)."
From following study we learn a lot about the symbiosis of corals and other reef animals with algae. But we learn also that "acidification" is only an assumption and light deprivation is absolutely not an idea for the research, but "pollution" may be a reason. We learn also that the mass death began in 1980 and specifically at the coast of South Africa it was very deadly between 1993 and 2006.
Dead birds falling in Somalia by ClimateControl!
Responses to High Seawater Temperatures in Zooxanthellate Octocorals
Paul W. Sammarco1,* and Kevin B. Strychar2
Stuart Humphries, Editor
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►
"Increases in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as a result of global warming have caused reef-building scleractinian corals to bleach worldwide, a result of the loss of obligate endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Since the 1980’s, bleaching severity and frequency has increased, in some cases causing mass mortality of corals. Earlier experiments have demonstrated that zooxanthellae in scleractinian corals from three families from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Faviidae, Poritidae, and Acroporidae) are more sensitive to heat stress than their hosts, exhibiting differential symptoms of programmed cell death – apoptosis and necrosis. Most zooxanthellar phylotypes are dying during expulsion upon release from the host. The host corals appear to be adapted or exapted to the heat increases. We attempt to determine whether this adaptation/exaptation occurs in octocorals by examining the heat-sensitivities of zooxanthellae and their host octocoral alcyonacean soft corals – Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Alcyoniidae), Sinularia lochmodes(Alcyoniidae), and Xenia elongata (Xeniidae), species from two different families."
"Many invertebrates possess endosymbionts that support the metabolism and other physiological activities in the host and, often, the host also provides nutrient resources to the endosymbionts. Scleractinian corals possess endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, also known as zooxanthellae , . These microalgae provide photosynthates comprised of carbohydrates, fatty acids, glycerol, tri-glycerids, amino acids, and oxygen to the host coral tissue. The coral host, on the other hand, provides carbon dioxide and nutrients in the form of waste products (N, P, and S) and urea to the zooxanthellae in hospite – -i.e., while they are still within the host, Zooxanthellae provide 65–100% – of the host coral’s metabolic energy requirements, although other investigators have determined that the host corals receive a substantial portion of their metabolic requirements from plankton, organic, and inorganic matter in the water column –. This symbiotic relationship facilitates precipitation of the calcium carbonate skeleton and colony growth through skeletal extension , , –."
"Endosymbiotic zooxanthellae are not restricted in occurrence to scleractinian corals ,  and are found in bivalves (e.g. Tridacna gigas , , scyphozoans (e.g., Cassiopea xamachana; , ), and flatworms (e.g., Amphiscolops sp ), as well as in other cnidarians, such as sea anemones [Anthopleura ballii ). One marine group in which they may be commonly found is the Octocorallia. In particular, they may be found in alcyonacean soft corals ."
"Through feeding, the coral polyp can obtain organic carbon that is used by the zooxanthellae to produce needed nutrients, to produce metabolic carbon dioxide via respiration, or to be excreted as organic carbon waste . The metabolic carbon dioxide produced by corals and zooxanthellae is a source of inorganic carbon in addition to the hydrogen carbonate ions in seawater. These compounds can be precipitated as skeletal calcium carbonate through a calcification process, excreted as waste, or, through photosynthesis, used by zooxanthellae to continue the energy cycle."
"The zooxanthellae facilitate the precipitation of calcium carbonate micro-spicules within the tissues of the soft corals. The symbiotic relationship in both scleractinians and octocorals generally operates within a defined temperature range of ∼18 to 33°C  with optimal temperatures at 25 to 29°C . Exceptions include, for example, reefs in the Persian Gulf, which have adapted to temperatures ranging from 13 to 38°C . Corals, when exposed to seawater temperatures above normal levels for their region, will exhibit “bleaching”; i.e., they lose their zooxanthellae, which provide color to the host coral tissue, leaving the tissue transparent. This has become one of several major causes of reef decline in the world, including pollution (P and S, which can also cause bleaching), disease, and other perturbations. Thus, the colony becomes “white” due to exposure of the skeleton through unpigmented tissue. Once the zooxanthellae are lost, if another population of zooxanthellae is not re-established within the coral host tissue within a few days to a few weeks, the coral will die –. This is also dependent upon the coral’s environment returning to pre-stress conditions. Bleaching can be caused by other factors, such as salinity, disease, pollution, and possibly ocean acidification, but these will not be considered in this paper."
"Different Symbiodinium phylotypes occur in different host species, and possess different temperature tolerances , , . In addition, there is species-specific variation in host physiology in, e.g., antioxidant properties, UV-absorbing proteins, etc. "
Explaining the lie about acidity of CO2 and delivering examples about mass death: No acidification but mass death by suffocation!
Deconstructing Geoengineering Mafia by simple facts!
3. Revealing the intention to break the food chain!
Imperial mouthpieces like Washington Post are "good sources" of imperial mind, but the statements have to be read conversely, as the truth is always the opposite of lie!
Propaganda carries only lies! So let us dissect the text and find the truth about coming food deprivation!
The arming of 100 thousands of mercenaries, framed as "Islamists", which were ready to attack any country, which did not submit to the imperial planning! Tunisian dictator Ben-Ali gave up power to save his people and country. A similar move under pressure was made by the dictator of Egypt, Mubarak. The rulers of Libya and Syria could not and did not submit and their countries and societies became coated with bloodshed, death and fire.
Russia Becomes a Grain Superpower as Wheat Exports Explode
Russia’s food exports continue to grow – but where are they going?
We go on with the dissection of WP article.
- 4 crops,
- 3 production regions,
- 65% of protein food supply,
- concentration in the hands of a few corporations,
- 14 "choke points", critical transport straits!
"Global food security depends on trade in just four crops: maize, wheat, rice and soybeans. The first three account for 60 per cent of the world's food energy intake. The fourth, soybeans, is the world's largest source of animal protein feed, making up 65 per cent of global protein feed supply. Their production is concentrated in a handful of exporting countries, including the United States, Brazil and the Black Sea region, from which they are flowing at ever-greater volumes."
Montrö, 2016’da revize edilecek
DÜNYA Giriş Tarihi: 08.12.2015 09:25
"20 yılda bir gözden geçirilen Montrö Boğazlar Sözleşmesi, 2016’da günün şartlarına göre revize edilecek. Boğaz'dan geçen Rus savaş gemisindeki füzeli asker skandalını masaya koyacak olan Türkiye, barış dönemlerinde boğazdan silahlı geçişe dair bir yaptırım kararı konusunda diretecek."
"Türkiye'nin Rus savaş uçağını Suriye sınır hattında düşürmesinin ardından Rusya, tehditlerini boğazlara taşırdı."
"TEHDİT VARSA ENGEL VAR
Montrö, Türkiye'ye, savaş zamanında, savaşan olması yahut kendisini pek yakın bir savaş tehdidi altında sayması halinde tehdit eden ülkenin savaş gemilerini engelleme hakkı tanıyor. Sözleşme uyarınca, savaş zamanında, Türkiye savaşan ise, savaş gemilerinin boğazlardan geçişi konusunda dilediği gibi davranabiliyor."
[IF THERE IS A THREAT, THERE ALSO OBSTACLES
According Montreux, if during war time, Turkey is a warring party or if Turkey considers itself threatened by a nearby war, it can hinder the war ships of the threatening country. According Montreux, if Turkey is the warring party, it can do whatever it wants about the passage of war ships through the straits.]
Now back to our WP article.
- elimination of Montreux Convention,
- tension between Turkey protected by NATO against Russia, and
- the breakup of Turkey to found Great Kurdistan
In later historical reflection, the disastrous failure of the coup may become reason of elimination of the CIA and maybe also the key reason of the breakdown of imperial complex. It is more painful than the dilettante Fascist coup in Kiev and the eternal loss of Sevastopol marine base to Russia.
On the other hand, it is the wonder of Turkey and Erdogan, to survive a CIA coup attempt and has delivered the apology for brutal elimination of CIA agent network, mainly under the brand of Gülenist-Movement.
The reader may feel, how "painful" is it for imperial psychopaths, that their plans to cause "disruption of key arteries due to political instability" have failed. :-) :-) It would have been so funny for the observer, if it wasn't deadly dangerous. The domino effect of "imperial-inforced cycle" of "food shortages" to "breed further instability" was not fulfilled.
In the western world, particularly in Germany the crisis of 2007-2008 was only a financial crisis. But this could have finished the FED-Dollar system, if German government did not "rescue" the bankrupt banks.
"But the problem is widespread. The 2007-2008 global food crisis was accompanied by protests in 61 countries and riots in 23."
But even where there is infrastructure investment, governments often fail to factor in climate risks: A 2016 survey by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development found that, with very few exceptions, they are largely overlooked even in rich countries."
So, Europe will be cut out from world supplies by closing the Gibraltar Strait. As if the dumb marionette politutes were "making any policies".
"Minimize the risk" but for whom and raise the risk for whom?
UN is not a legitimate body to take over the responsibility of states to care for the mere existence of their populations. Many states don't deserve to be named as such. They are only tools of oppression, but the remaining sovereign states will take care by themselves. The imperial complex wants to turn all humanity into beggars and food stamp dependents.
As the "extreme weather" is nothing else but GW, this last statement should be considered as a final threat. It says submit to the "global governance of climate control, else You will be further attacked with GW"! The "alternative sources" of food are more corporate land grabbing, more desert farming, more fracking for mineral fuel and more water grabbing by control on troposheric rivers! Recognize, that the text doesn't attack the multinational corporations. It uses only the statement of "a handful of mega crop exporters", meaning Russia, Brasil, USA!
End of dissection of WP article.
""I want to highlight that we aren't promoting geoengineering, we are promoting dialogue," says Pasztor."